Periodization (Cooling) in Bodybuilding - Sportwiki Encyclopedia

Basic Information on Periodization

Periodization - These are any periodic changes in the plan of training. Periodization is used in bodybuilding, paeerlifting and weightlifting. The signal for inclusion of periodization into the training process can be stagnant in scales, which, sooner or later, it comes from all athletes that continually training in the "Failure".

The variability of training schemes can be determined by the following indicators:

"Attention"Periodization should not be confused with cycling, since the latter is one of the methods of planning one or another period only by level Intensity и tonnage (volume) Training. The maximum intensive is the work with the maximum weight, while working with low intensity involves a small weight, but a large number of repetitions. The volume of training is determined by the total number of work performed on the training session (calculated as weight х Repeat х Approaches ). The purpose of the process of periodization of the training process is its adaptation to the needs and capabilities of the body.

What is the periodization? [edit | Code ]

Many experts consider periodization by the main method of "shocking" muscles, which prevents the development of a training plateau when typing muscular mass. As is known, heavy workouts are needed to increase the power of the muscle mass and to increase the power indicators, which go beyond the load. At the initial stages of training, any heavy training will produce a fairly high-quality and spectacular result - muscle hypertrophy and an increase in the power indicators will occur, even if you simply adhere to the regular schedule of training that includes basic exercises.

This may continue a long enough time interval - from several months to 1-1.5 years. However, long-term finding in such training mode will cause a number of negative consequences.

  • First, the lack of thoughtfulness in changing the loads. Even if it is severe volumetric workouts, they lead to a slowdown in muscle mass - the body adapts to the load and does not need an additional muscle tissue reserve.
  • Secondly, monotonous training leads to an inefficient load distribution on various types of muscle fibers. Some muscular fibers (and even individual beams) experience an excessive increase in the load, while others are not involved for a long time. In addition, the change in load types causes muscle hypertrophy (increase size) and their hyperplasia (increase in quantity).
  • Thirdly, following such graphics contributes to an increase in health risks. In particular, heavy workouts have a colossal load on the central nervous system - if not to give the body to rest from such training, it is exhausted.

As a result, the bodybuilder can regularly work well, seek a good result, but from month to month, from year to year there will be no progress, nor in power indicators or in the growth of the masses. And at the same time there is a sluggish overtraining, which affects the health, lifestyle and workout mode.

Similar stagnation not only inhibits development, but often motivates people to quit training: according to statistics of European fitness clubs, up to 60% of visitors, without achieving the expected results, they throw bodybuilding.

Cycling It is one of the methods of periodization of the training program within the same cycle. Cycling involves changing only the degree of intensity and exercise program. It is not associated with the number of exercises and sets. The number of exercises, sets, as well as classes per week is determined by periodization (although very often in the literature, cycling and periodization are mixed, interpreted differently).

Thus, the main idea of ​​cycling in bodybuilding is to gradually increase the total load for certain periods of time and mitigate the load after reaching a maximum, in which the subsequent saving of the load changes will not lead to due response from the body and, in particular, the synthesis process of muscular Fabrics.

Planning training cycle according to V.Potasenko for athletes of the initial level of training

Load cycling - This is a way to periodize the quality of the training process that ensures constant progress. The load cycling implies micro and macro periodization when within one week an athlete from training to training changes the training volume or relative intensity, or when the purpose of the training program changes within a longer period. Accordingly, periodization within one week is a micro cycling, and periodization within a longer period of meso and macro cycling. A cycling theory is still developed in the USSR, where it was used in weightlifting, later the theory was adapted for a competitive tricing, at the moment the cycling method is adapting and for bodybuilding, which is due to its popularization.

The load cycling makes it possible to avoid the presence of "weaknesses", since the athlete periodically makes the focus on the development of different speeds and power indicators, as well as, which is especially important, periodization avoids overtraining, since on an advanced level, linear progress, sooner or later, leads to stagnation. The cycling methods were developed by these methodologies like George Funtikov, Yuri Upperoshansky, Anatoly Chernyak and others. Methods for weightlifting were developed, respectively, they are necessary to optimize for paeerlifting and bodybuilding, which for the first has already been done, and for the second there are not yet. This is due to the fact that professional powerlifters use cycling, and professional bodybuilders proceed from simpler training schemes, since the specificity of the training, when using pharmacology, for muscle hypertrophy does not need such a strict cycling system. But in natural bodybuilding, periodization is necessary because "naturals" are progressing only under progress in high-speed and power indicators.

There are various approaches to periodization in bodybuilding, but they are all based on some principles. There are three different in the time frame and character of the cycle - microcycle, mesocycial and macrocycle.

Microcycle - Short along the duration of the cycle (several days, most often - week), which includes several separate workouts.

From several microcycles folds Mesocycle . Mesocycle is phase The training process, pursuing certain goals - an increase in muscle mass, improving the power indicators, fat burning and relief (or, so-called "drying"). As a rule, in addition to full-fledged training microcycles, a less severe softened microcycle is added at the end of the mesocycla. Moreover, the higher the load in the "main" microcycles, the lower it should be in the "reducing" cycle. The average duration of the mesocyclaus is about a month, but can reach 8-12 weeks.

Macrocycle It is a combination of several mesocycles, in the complex decisive the main task of training. The use of the macrocycle is most relevant for experienced bodybuilders and speakers in the competitions of bodybuilders.

Periodization at the initial stages of force training can be built on mesocycles. However, on an advanced level, in such a case, it is possible to observe a certain stagnation in the development of muscles and power indicators, which is overcome by periodization within the annual macrocycle.

Widespread programs often imply the participation of a bodybuilder in competitions and provide for a peak form to the competition period. Such a macrocycle includes a preparatory period consisting of several mesocycles, which are certain phases in the preparation, the competitive period, pursuing the goal of achieving the maximum (peak) form, and the transition period, restoring force and preparing for the next annual cycle.

When planning cycles, it should be borne in mind that if periodization is used in several exercises, the development of these cycles should occur parallel to each other. Otherwise, the cycle will lose its advantage over the usual approach - there will be no periods in which the body is restored from elevated loads, since during the recovery period in one cycle there will be a load in another cycle.

Methods of periodization and cycling in bodybuilding [edit | Code ]

Linear periodization model with three controlled indicators: the volume of training (V), the intensity (I) and the technique (T). Phases: Preparatory, Restorative (Transitional) and Competitive, Subsequent Recovery

Variable periodization:

% PM.

X Number of approaches x Number of repetitions

Mass set (8-12 weeks): It is the main mesocycle in bodybuilding, which, in turn, implies micro periodization, due to which bodybuilders who do not use pharmacology can avoid stagnation, to achieve maximum muscle growth and progress in high-speed indicators. Since for "natural" change in the qualitative characteristics of the muscles is the only way to achieve their hypertrophy, cycling is the only way to progress when the linear progression of loads no longer works.

The easiest way to microcycisculation of this mesocyclay is alternating in terms of the volume of light, moderate and heavy workouts, when 1 week athlete trains easily, the second middle, and the third is hard, while the intensity (% PM) increases linearly from the beginning to the end of the mesocycla. The mesocycle of the mass set implies the intensity range of 40-80% PM (more often 60-80%). For example:

  • 1 Week:
    • 1 Training: 70% PM x 15 Repeats x 3 approach (Easy training)
    • 2 Training: 70% PM x 15 Repeats x 4 approach (moderate training)
    • 3 Training: 70% PM x 15 repetitions of 5 approaches (severe training)
  • 2 weeks:
    • 1 Training: 75% PM x 12 Repeats x 3 approach (easy training)
    • 2 Training: 75% PM x 12 repetitions x 4 approach (moderate training)
    • 3 Training: 75% PM x 12 repetitions x 5 approaches (heavy training)
  • 3 weeks:
    • 1 Training: 80% PM x 8 Repeats x 3 approach (easy training)
    • 2 Training: 80% PM x 8 Repeats x 4 approach (moderate training)
    • 3 Training: 80% PM x 8 repetitions of 5 approaches (severe training)

Many athletes change the intensity nonlinearly and can train within 6-8 repetitions, and next week to use layouts by 12 or 20 repetitions, which makes it possible to use different muscle fibers and are capable of energy supply.

In the case of a split-program classes, the volume of training varies in the same way. For example, with a 2-day split:

  • 1 week: Heavy training "Niza", moderate training "Verkha"
  • 2 weeks: moderate training "Niza", easy training "top"
  • 3 Week: Easy training "Niza", High Training "Verch", etc.

Read more: The best training programs for mass

Power period (3-6 weeks): This is a mesocycle, which sometimes must replace purely cultural circuits, during which the athlete works its strength indicators in the range from 3 to 6 repetitions (PM more than 80%). In fact, this is the use of layouts of the Powerlifters, which allow you to give a qualitatively other load on the muscles, bundles, joints, central nervous system, and other systems of the body, due to which the athlete can increase weight weights and, as a result, to increase additional kilograms. Include the power cycle on the annual plan is recommended 1-2 times a year, depending on the athlet training and the reaction of its body to such a type of training. "Attention"Very often the power cycle is carried out to the mass.

Drying (8-12 weeks): This is a period of reducing the level of subcutaneous fat. Also, "drying" is called the eyeliner to competitions in professional bodybuilding, which is aimed at dehydration. However, a period of lowering the level of fat must be included in the training plan, which is due both practical and physiological factors. The relevance of the reduction in the level of subcutaneous fat, in particular, is due to anabolic resistance, which avoids the program of a set of pure muscular mass. In any case, 1-2 months a year must be devoted to "drying" to avoid as a number of side effects of too long, the mass simplifing period and to unload the nervous and muscle systems. The intensity of training can be in the range of 60-20% PM. Carding and interval training are also actively connected.

Read more: Training for relief

Power period: This is the main mesocycle of the Powerlifer, or the airlock athlete, during which the athlete is trained within the intensity from 60% to 90-95% of the repeated maximum. Accordingly, during this period, the number of rod lifts is not very high, and the load microcycling is carried out mainly due to changes in the volume of training (general tonnage). A simple diagram Periodization is presented in the Faleev's power program when the athlete takes 8-12 weekly cycle, which begins which it with low intensity, gradually leading itself to a new repeated maximum. More complex load cycling schemes in Powerlifting can be found in George Funtikova and Anatol Chernyak. It is important to understand that the meso cycling is carried out by discharge of the power cycle itself, in which the athlete is trained in a certain intensity range, and micro cycling is carried out by using a different% intensity and load volume inside the training cycle and to a lesser extent manipulation with KPS (the number of rod lifts ).

Endurance: This is a training mesocycle that allows athletes to gain muscle mass and acquire the ability to work long enough in the range of 8-12 repetitions, which, in general, correlates with the main schemes of the training of bodybuilders. That is why periodization is rarely used inside the cycle, or its easiest option is taken, when one week athlete is training "hard", and the second "easily", choosing the relative intensity of heavy and easy workouts. Workouts are built in such a way that the athle can perform a simple or complex layout. A simple layout assumes the implementation of 4-6 working approaches by 12 repetitions without improving the weight weight. A complex layout involves weight gain when the athlete performs 2-4 submission approaches by 10-12 repetitions and finalizing to 8. There will be no error and raising the repetitions to 15-20 in the last approach, but to reduce the working weight from the approach to approach is prohibited.

Speed: The mesocycle for the development of high-speed qualities is rarely allocated in a separate training program, since it is not necessary, it can be included in the power cycle, or any other. During this period, the athlete is trained using ropes, chains, pauses and other methods set out in the relevant article on our website. In fact, inside the cycle, such a training can be a micro-periodization of the load, which allows unloading the nervous system and work out the technique of performing major competitive exercises.

Power peak: This is usually summing up a training program for competition, which is used to reduce the entire previous training period and allow the athlete to show the maximum result in competitions. During this period, the athlete uses intensity within 70-90%, training in the range of up to 3 repetitions. Auxiliary exercises are mainly specialized, that is, those that are elements of competitive movements, which allows to level weak points. Micro cycle during this period is as simple enough, the athlete simply alternates a lightweight and difficult week. Since the program cannot last more than 2-3 weeks, respectively, the first week of the athlete is training hard, the second easily, then 2-4 days before the competition rests and goes to the platform.

Read more: Powerlifting Training (best programs and exercises)

Periodization as a means of planning and programming training [edit | Code ]

Periodization includes two basic concepts : Periodization of the annual plan and periodization of biomotor abilities.

  • Periodization of the annual plan includes separation of the program to blocks in order to better control the process of training and adaptation and, if necessary, ensuring maximum performance during the main competitions. Periodization of the annual plan is especially useful for coaches for the following reasons:
    • It helps the coaches to develop a rationally structured workout plan;
    • increases the awareness of the coaches about the time required for each stage;
    • integrates the technical and tactical load, the development of biomotor abilities, nutrition and psychological techniques at the right time to maximize the potential of motor units of athlete and achieving peak performance;
    • allows you to control the process of fatigue and plan a larger amount of high-quality workouts;
    • It helps the coaches to plan a rational alternation of periods of load and unloading during training stages, which allows maximizing adaptation and performance, as well as prevent the accumulation of the critical level of fatigue and the offensive of overtraining.
  • Periodization of biomotor abilities allows athletes to develop biomotor abilities (strength, speed and endurance) to the optimal level as a base for increasing the results demonstrated. This form of periodization is based on the following prerequisites:
    • Improving performance is based on increasing the motor potential of an athlete (especially for high-level athlete);
    • Morphofunctional adaptation (i.e., positive changes in the structure of the body and functions) require time, as well as alternating work and recovery for their manifestation;
    • The development of biomotor abilities and the improvement of technical and tactical factors requires a progressive approach, in accordance with which the intensity of training impacts is gradually improving the previously implemented morphological and functional adaptations;
    • The athlete cannot maintain maximum performance over a long or indefinite period of time.

Planning, Programming and Periodization [edit | Code ]

Terms Planning, Programming and Periodization Frequently presented in the form of synonyms, but in fact it is not. Planning is the process of organizing training programs and its breakdowns for short-term and long-term stages in order to achieve training goals. Programming, on the contrary, is the content of this structure with the contents in the form of training techniques. Periodization combines planning and programming or, in other words, the structure of the annual plan and its content (which includes training techniques and means), taking into account the changes occurring. Thus, the periodization of the annual plan can be defined as the structure of the training process, and the periodization of biomotor abilities - as the content of the plan. In other words, every time, dividing the year to the stages and determining the sequence of development of each biomotor ability, we are developing a periodization plan.

Separate critics of the periodization doctrine argue that it was created for individual sports that include a long-term preparatory stage and a short competitive stage. Accordingly, in their opinion, periodization cannot be applied in relation to modern sports, which are characterized by a short-term preparatory period and a very long competitive period. This criticism would have the right to life if the factors relating to this issue were in a single combination. In fact, you can develop any required number of periodization plans for a variety of possible situations that may occur during the training process. In addition, if you analyze the work that the critics themselves perform, then it can be noted that their plans also imply the division of the annual period into smaller stages and periodization of biomotor abilities, which makes it possible to consider these plans as periodization plans.

Figure 1 shows the components of each theory of planning the training process. Periodization itself is a broad methodological doctrine, which includes many theoretical and methodological concepts.

Strictly speaking, before starting a discussion of what method of planning and programming is best suited for a certain kind of sport, it is necessary to coordinate terminology and, more importantly, to agree on the concepts themselves forming the theory of planning and programming the training process.

Fig. 1. The scheme on which all components of each theory of planning and programming training

In the book of Leonid Matveyev "The problem of training periodization" (1964) analyzes the diary of training Russian athletes who participated in the Olympic Games, which were held in 1952. Tudor Bamoma has already used periodization of workouts when working with its wards, including Michael Penase (winner of a gold medal in speaking competitions at the Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964) and developed the approach, which later became his own training periodization concept forces; She is considered in this book. Nevertheless, periodization was widely popular, especially in North America, only after the exit of the well-known work of Tudora Bomy "Periodization: theory and methodology of training" (1983).

Unlike Soviet authors who allocated microcycles, mesocycles and macrocycles (having a different duration, for example, six months, year or four years [Olympic cycle]), we will use the following terminology (see Table 1):

  • Annual plan (Annual macrocycle in the interpretation of Soviet authors): year is divided into stages, sub-attacks, macrocycles and microcycles for optimal management of the training process. Annual plans are characterized by the number of competitive stages and, accordingly, are defined as monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic.
  • Stages (Macrocycles in the interpretation of Soviet authors): highlight three stages: preparatory, competitive and transitional.
  • Podtapy : Further refinement of the content of the stages includes general preparation, special training, preset stage, competition and transitional period. The sub-stage consists of a group of macrocycles with the same orientation, the duration of which can vary from one week (for a short transitional stage) to 24 weeks (for the long phase of general preparation).
  • Macrocycle (Mesocycle in the interpretation of Soviet authors): Macrocycle is a group of microcycles of the same orientation (in accordance with the macrocycle and sub-step), and its duration may vary from 2 weeks (for preset discharge macrocycles, which is also called decreasing macrocycle) to 6 weeks (for continuous The introductory macrocycle during general preparation), but usually the duration of the macrocycle is 2-4 weeks.
  • Microcycle : It is a cyclic sequence of training units whose goals correspond to the purposes that are determined for the macrocycle. The duration of the microcyclaus may vary from 5 to 14 days, but usually it is 7 days, by analogy with the duration of the week.
  • Training unit : Represents a single training session with interruptions, the duration of which does not exceed 45 minutes.

Table 1. Separation of the annual plan for steps and training cycles

Annual plan

Stages training














At this stage, you can carry out the following distinction: Annual plan, stages and sub-attacks are tools used for planning, while macrocycles, microcycles and training units are tools used for programming. The first group allows the coaches to develop a long-term plan, and the second group makes it possible to determine the content of the training process in detail. In general, the planning and programming process begins with a long-term tool (the annual plan) and ends with a short-term instrument (training session). Thus, the annual plan contains both planning elements (for example, stages and sub-attacks) and programming elements (for example, macrocycles and microcycles, reflecting the periodization of biomic abilities), and covers the training process in the complex (see Figure 2). It should be paid to the fact that intensity values ​​refer to the overall intensity of training, and not to the dominant energy system of the body.

Fig. 2. Annual plan of the sprinter preparing to the 2004 Olympic Games. Legend: OP - Total preparation, SP - Specific preparation, SV - Power Endurance, PP - Preporstable sub-step, C - Competition, PE - Transitional Stage, AA - Anatomical Adaptation, MS - Maximum Strength, Conv. In M - Conversion to Power, PAT. - Support stage, complete. C - Competition Competition, OS - Total Speed, Relapse. UK. / MS - Development of acceleration / maximum speed, OV - total endurance, SP.V - Specific endurance, about. - General, Sat. - Balanced.

Programming the training process is formed during a microcycle through the use of methodological concepts, such as alternation of load and energy systems. Trainers can use training sessions and tests as direct and feedback elements to adjust the program to individualize and maximize the efficiency of the training process.

Periodization of training biomotor abilities [edit | Code ]

The aim of training biomotor abilities is to improve the results demonstrated by the athlete, due to specialized morphological and functional adaptations. The most important characteristic of training biomotor abilities is the increasing overload. Despite the fact that the motor potential of the athlete is fully laid in its genetic code, it is necessary to implement this potential that the training process consists of general and specific elements, not only for complying with the principle of the diversity of the training process, but also in terms of the development of biomotor development. Abilities as such. For example, the indicated possibility of the development of biomotor abilities determines that training for endurance for a sport characterized by a large duration should generally be based on a specific work that can occupy up to 90 percent of the training time in a year. A more limited possibility of speeding, on the contrary, requires an athlete concentration on elements of general physical training (such as training forces and its various manifestations).

Each theory and methodology for planning and programming training in relation to the periodization of the development of force, speed and endurance determines the following four elements:

  1. Integrating biomotor abilities;
  2. Development of each defining biomotor ability according to plan;
  3. The degree of specialization of training funds according to plan;
  4. Sequential increase in load.

Integrating biomotor abilities [edit | Code ]

In the process of programming, the integration of biomotor abilities includes accounting for the dynamics of the impact provided by one biomotor ability to other, as well as the accounting of morphological and functional adaptations that occur as a result of the summation of all influences. From the section of the annual plan on the periodization of biomotor abilities, it is possible to understand the method of integrating biomotor abilities, having studied the behavior of three lines of force, speed and endurance for each column of the macrocycle (see Table 2). Depending on the integration of biomotor abilities, one of the following two schemes can be used: integrated integration or sequential integration.

When using this approach, power, speed and endurance are developing simultaneously throughout the year. That is, the load of each biomotor ability is distributed throughout the duration of the annual plan. This type of integration is suitable for all sports, including those sports in which the preparatory part is short, and the competitive part is continuous and there is no need to access the form peak (for example, in team sports). This is the only technique suitable for working with young and, in general, inexperienced athletes, to which a versatile approach is needed.

Table 2. Annual plan reflects (vertically) integrating biomotor abilities (in this case anatomical adaptation, total speed and total endurance during a general preparation phase)











Total speed


Total endurance

When using this approach, which is also often called block periodization, the load for force, speed and endurance is distributed into separate blocks that follow one after another in the annual plan. Since the power unit is almost entirely devoted to improving this biomotor ability, the main problem of consistent integration is the difficulty of maintaining the level of individual biomotor abilities and techniques. For this reason, this approach is used by more experienced athletes participating in high-speed sports (not necessarily high), which is better able to maintain the level of other abilities.

Another possible limitation of this method of planning is that during the high-speed unit and endurance block, the force is not supported, which can lead to loss of power in the event of a long competitive period. For sports, in which rackets, and sports martial arts are used, a shortened version of consistent integration is provided, since the competition for these sports competitions are grouped in several periods during the year. In some sports during the preparatory stage, the coaches are targeting the development of a number of aspects of physical training, for example, aerobic ability, maximum strength, muscle endurance, acceleration and individual endurance. Each of these elements implies morphofunctional and psychological adaptation, and these types of adaptation are often conflicted among themselves. For example, the adaptations necessary in training hypertrophy (both at the level of skeletal muscles and at the nervous level) are limited to metabolic and nervous costs arising from the workout of endurance. Thus, it is recommended to determine the participation of both elements in the development of the motor potential of an athlete in accordance with the sport and individual characteristics. Through the use of this approach during training, it is possible to determine one element as a priority and develop biomotor capabilities with respect to the specific characteristics of the sport without the need to clearly divide the training of one biomotor ability to train another biomotor capacity with the risk of weakening the latter.

Development of biomotor abilities [edit | Code ]

Term development Reflects the model in accordance with which we are planning to train or develop biomotor ability in the annual plan. In the annual plan, dedicated to the periodization of biomotor abilities, the development is displayed as a horizontal line corresponding to each biomotor ability.

The development of biomotor abilities can be complex, consistent or pendulum. Each options are considered in the subsections below.

Table 3. Sequential development of force in the annual plan








Convey In power




Convey in St.







With a comprehensive development of biomotor ability, simultaneous training of two or more qualities of the same ability, for example, maximum strength and power or muscle endurance occurs. This approach can be used on several levels.

  • Training unit: Maximum strength, power or muscle endurance is trained during one training unit.
  • Microcycle: Maximum force, power or muscle endurance is trained for one microcycle, but during different training units;
  • Macrocycle: Maximum force, power or muscle endurance is trained during the macocycle during specialized microcycles;
  • If two qualities are trained alternately during a macrocycle (for example, the microcycle of the maximum power follows the microcycle of the power, followed by the microcycle of the maximum force, after which the microcycle of power goes again), the macrocycle occurs, which is called "pendulum".

Comprehensive programming is used at the level of the training unit only in certain situations, for example, during the training of young athletes or amateur teams, which require fewer training units, as well as with the support of maximum or specific strength. If the integrated development of biomotor abilities is short-term (from four to six weeks), positive results are noted from training, which, nevertheless, are quickly stabilized.

As an example, you can consider the amateur football team, the coach of which thinks that physical training ends at the end of the preparatory stage. During the preparatory stage, the team trains to develop and integrate biomotor abilities using an integrated approach. In other words, all the abilities train at the same time: power, muscle stamina, aerobic endurance, short-term anaerobic ability and speed. Nevertheless, at the end of this training stage, the coach passes only to specific training, and the team gradually loses the form.

With consistent development, as prompts the name, the quality of biomotor abilities are training sequentially. For example, after anatomical adaptation, the development of the maximum force may occur, behind which, in turn, the capacity should be trained. The sequence is built in such a way that the training of one element contributes to the development of another element. For example, the maximum force is a base for power, which at the same time is a speed base. The duration of each training impact is determined by the time necessary to achieve the desired level of morphofunctional adaptation to this impact.

Table 4 shows the development of each biomotor ability to achieve maximum increase in the engine potential of the sprinter. For a runner at a distance of 100 meters, a specific force is powerful endurance, and a specific combination of speed and endurance is high-speed endurance (lactate performance). Upon completion of the macrocycle anatomical adaptation, the maximum strength training occurs for subsequent maximization of power. Acceleration is a specific basis for technical skills and energy generation to ensure maximum speed, and a low-intensity aerobic ability training helps the athlete to recover for the next anaerobic classes.

During the next step, the capacity is trained as a neutral base for powerful endurance and speed, and the endurance training becomes a training for lactate to the effects performed in order to create metabolic adaptations, at which an athlete can maximize specific endurance: lactate. After that, the maximum speed is happening, and then the powerful endurance is developing with zero creating physiological adaptations to maximize high-speed endurance. This example shows how it is possible to rationally schedule the development and integration of biomotor abilities to achieve maximum results.

Table 4. The range of morphofunctional adaptation for runner at a distance of 100 meters.



Power (PAT: MS)





Maximum speed

High-speed endurance (lactate m)


Intensive tempo training (aerobic m)

Specific endurance (lactate

Legend: Subcord. - Support, MS - Maximum Force, M - Power and SV - Power Endurance

Immediate and deferred improvement [edit | Code ]

When using a serial approach, you can adjust the load parameters in order to ensure immediate or deferred improvement. In the case of an approach, the purpose of which is immediate improvement, the growth of indicators of developing biomotor abilities occurs at the end of the macrocycle. In particular, the volume of training effects ensures improvement of developed quality after the limited discharge period (the duration of which is usually one week). Through the use of this approach, you can also work on speed and technical and tactical elements, simultaneously not forgetting physical training.

When using an approach providing for a deferred improvement, the indicators of developable biomotor abilities deteriorate to the end of the macrocycle, but are improved in the future (this approach is also known as the "planned overwork"). Since in the case of this approach, the load concentration temporarily reduces certain functional parameters, it is necessary to separate this training for some time on the speed and technical and tactical elements. Such a separation allows an athlete to gain an advantage as a result of a long-term effect on the concentration of physical exertion.

With pendulum development, there is an alternate training of two qualities of biomotor ability. For example, the maximum power macrocycle follows the power macrocycle, followed by the maximum force macrocycle again, after which another power macrocycle is coming. This approach is highly preferable for sports, in which rackets, contact sports and sports martial arts are used, in which the long stage of maximum strength can adversely affect energy production when performing certain exercises, while sometimes unpredictable competitive schedule requires an athlete to support the form To competitions.

In this section, we are again a delimitation of an integrated approach and a consistent approach. With an integrated approach, the immediate and immediate use of both general and specific methods for training medium and high intensity occurs. Due to the short preparatory period and a long competitive season, this approach is widely used in team sports. With a consistent approach, on the contrary, due to the gradual decrease in the training potential of the selected method, the specifics and the intensity of the training effects gradually increases. In the case of using this approach, each workout method is used to use morphofunctional adaptations caused by previously used methods (Uppernaya, 2008). This approach is especially recommended for increasing the motor potential of an athlete engaged in individual sports for which long-term preparatory periods are characterized.

In certain sports, a homogeneous level of load is envisaged during the year, which is also called standard load. In some teams, the weekly duration of training is 6-12 hours throughout the year, and the content of training data remains almost unchanged. The result of the standard load is an early improvement, followed by a period of stabilization and unloading during the competitive stage. On the other hand, despite the fact that this approach is an effective way to gradually increase the load for beginners, scientific research and empirical method, it has been proven that the linear load is an imperfect method of applying a load on medium and high athletes.

In fact, the biological system does not develop in time in accordance with the laws of mechanics or mathematics. On the contrary, to ensure long-term and positive morphofunctional adaptations, the best way is the introduction of a cyclic, thorough and self-regulatory model. This characteristic can even be taken into account when developing a periodization plan.

Fig. 3. Four ways to develop an indulgent macrocycle

The edulation can be introduced both at the macocycle level and at the microcycla level. As shown in columns 1 and 2 in Figure 3, the churches at the macocycle level can be carried out by alternating microcycles of various loads. The column 1 shows the sequence of above average, medium, high and low levels of weekly load. The macrocycle edulation can also occur by placement at the end of the discharge microcycle. In column 3, this approach is displayed as part of a standard macrocycle of general preparation when using a stepped load (average, above average level, high and low), and in column 4 shows the standard macrocycle of special preparation when using uniform load (high, very high, low). The load edulation between macrocycles is achieved due to the location of the discharge microcycle at the end of the macrocycle (see Figure 4).

Fig. 4. The location of the unloading microcycle at the end of the macrocycle maximizes the adaptation and provides the abduction quality of the gradual increase in load

The microcycles level abundance is subject to very important methodological concepts of energy systems of the body and alternating the load (see Figures 5 and 6). When planning competitive microcycles, it is necessary to take into account the recovery after the competition and the preset unloading (see Figure 7).

The requirements of the self-regulating training program can be performed in several ways: constant monitoring of the state of athletes, readiness for the adjustment of the daily program in accordance with the feedback received from athletes, collecting objective data during training and testing during each discharge microcycle, located at the end of the macrocycle. Periodization is characterized by flexibility. The mechanistic rigidity at which periodization is often associated is most likely based on the principles of linear periodization of power training, which was popular in the USA in the 80s, when very long training periods were envisaged during which the load on the body increased in arithmetic progression. This approach has nothing to do with much more thoughtful and rational periodization strategies that are used by the best coaches defining Load based on direct communication, feedback and carrying out the necessary adjustments . This approach is correct.

  • Fig. 5. Alternation of the load within the microcyclaus as part of a highly intense specialized weightlifter training program

  • Fig. 6. Alternation of the load within the microcyclaus as part of a maximum power training program for an individual sport.

  • Fig. 7. Load alternation during the competitive microcycle. A day after the competition, the athlete's load is reduced to ensure recovery, and two days before the competition, its load is again reduced to relieve residual fatigue and improve performance.

Periodization, in fact, is a set of methodological concepts, the use of which is adjusted under a certain situation. For this reason, periodization can take a wide variety of forms. Trainers should be aware of the existence of various planning models, each of which is intended for certain sports and specific levels of training athletes. From the point of view of programming, the coaching methodology of training and knowledge of physiology of exercises can allow the coaches to use their own intuition on the issue of determining the level of work and changes in the state of their wards in response to training exposure, which makes it possible to predict the desired morphofunctional adaptations. Nevertheless, continuous monitoring, assessment and adjustment of the program are required to achieve the best result.

Periodization of physical exertion for different sports [edit | Code ]

Load models used during workouts are flexible. They can be changed in accordance with the type of force developed during a certain stage of workout in the same way as in accordance with the sport or level of efficiency. To simplify the understanding and implementation of this concept, drawings are given in the relevant articles on which the use of these models in various sports is shown. The examples below show how the load models can be changed in accordance with the workout stage for a program with one cycle for players in baseball, softball or cricket speakers at the amateur level, College Basketball Team, Lainman College Commands on American Football, as well as for a program with two Run cycles for short distances in athletics and swimming for short and long distances.

The figures are indicated (in the order from above) the number of weeks planned for a certain stage of workouts, the type of training performed at the stage, and the load model (high, medium or low). Even if the selected sport is not considered in the above examples, with a proper understanding of the concept, it is very easy to apply to each specific case. In addition, the presented set of examples can be used associatively.

  • Fig. 1. Changing the load model at the stages of power workouts for the amateur team on baseball, softball or cricket. To maximize the development of power in the two latter macrocycles, two adjacent high load cycles are provided, followed by recovery cycles (low load). Changing the load model at the stages of power training for the amateur team on baseball, softball or cricket. To maximize the development of power in the two latter macrocycles, two adjacent high load cycles are provided, followed by recovery cycles (low load).

  • Fig. 2. The proposed model of load for the college basketball team, in accordance with which the preparatory stage continues from July to October

  • Fig. 3. Changing the load model for periodization of the development of Linen's force as part of the College Commands on American Football. A similar approach can be used by throws in athletics and heavy weight category fighters.

  • Fig. 4. Changing the load model for the marathon distance in canoe rowing, in which the dominant ability is long-term muscle stamina. A similar approach can be used for cycling, ski racing, tricing and academic rowing.

  • Fig. 5. Changing the load model for the first part of the annual plan with two cycles for running short distances in athletics

  • Fig. 6. Changing the load model for the swimmer for short distances (the first part of the annual plan with two cycles). Training of the last two stages are energy-consuming, since for two adjacent weeks there is a high load.

  • Fig. 7. Changing the load model for a swimmer for long distances. In training at maximum strength, the load should not exceed 80% of the repeated maximum. Load on muscle endurance is small (from 30 to 40%), but the number of repetitions is very large

Results of periodization on force-time curve [edit | Code ]

In the article, the muscle power is presented an analysis of the strength curve, which marks various components of force. It was also shown how different load levels affect the adaptation of the neuromuscular system, and the order of training the nervous system was explained to manifest the maximum amount of force during the minimum time interval. Under the influence of bodybuilding, the training programs often include a large number of repetitions (from 12 to 15) performed before refusal. Following such programs mainly leads to an increase in muscle size, and not to increase the reduction rate. The use of force in the sport is performed very quickly, in particular, during a period of time from less than 100 milliseconds up to 200 milliseconds. The only type of force training that stimulates the optimal development of the rapid use of force is the consistent development of maximum strength and power (Uppernaya, 1997).

At the same time, however, the opposite approach has the right to life if a version of work is used during training in accordance with bodybuilding techniques. In this case, the number of repetitions performed in one approach exceeds the number of repetitions performed during the development of maximum strength and power, respectively, the application of force takes place slower (takes more than 250 milliseconds). Thus, this technique is not suitable for most sports. Since in sports, the use of force is usually carried out very quickly, the main purpose of sports power training is the shift of the force-time curve to the left or as close as possible to the standard for a certain type of sport for the use of force (less than 200 milliseconds) due to the simultaneous workout of maximum strength and power. See Figure 9.

  • Fig. 8. Curves for power-time for two training programs with weight

  • Fig. 9. The purpose of strength training is the shift of the strength-time curve to the left

  • Fig. 10. The impact of the workout specificity during each stage on the behavior of the time-time curve

In order to ensure the shift of the curve to the time of the application of force corresponding to a specific sport type, it may take a long time. In fact, the entire essence of the periodization of the development of force is to use power training corresponding to a specific stage in order to shift the force-time curve to the left, that is, reducing the time to perform the movement before the start of the main competition. It was during the competition that the athlete most needs the rapid use of force, and the increase in power provides an additional advantage.

As mentioned earlier, each stage of the periodization of the development of force has certain goals. When building a force-time curve for each stage of workouts in athletes and coaches, there is an opportunity to look at the influence provided by training on the behavior of the curve, under a different angle. In Figure 10, the periodization of the development of force in the case of inclusion in the hypertrophy stage in the program. Naturally, this model is suitable only for certain sports, while for most sports, the hypertrophy stage is not included in the annual plan.

In accordance with Figure 10, the type of program performed at the stage of anatomical adaptation, has a slight effect on the behavior of the force-time curve. As a maximum, a small displacement of the curve to the right may occur (i.e. will increase the execution time). Usually, as a result of the use of methods for the development of hypertrophy, the curve is shifted to the right, since each approach is performed before failure, respectively, energy generation decreases with each subsequent repetition. Because of this, muscle hypertrophy does not turn into an increase in force of force.

The use of high load, starting from the stage of maximum strength, on the contrary, leads to the development of the explosive nature of movements during the conversion of the maximum force into the power, thus shifting the curve to the left in accordance with the goal. Since this type of training continues during the support phase, the curve should remain on the left.

It should not be expected that it will be possible to achieve a truly explosive nature and power of movements before the beginning of the competitive stage. Power maximization occurs only as a result of the introduction of the conversion stage; Thus, at the stage of hypertrophy or even at the stage of maximum strength, it is difficult to expect a high level of power. Nevertheless, the increase in maximum strength is vital if the athlete wants to achieve power to increase the power year per year, since the capacity is a maximum force derivative. Accordingly, the periodization of the development of force is an optimal way to succeed both in the development of muscle endurance and in the development of power.

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