If you look at history, starting with the appearance of the first sundial and ending with the atomic clock, one can unequivocally declare the unquenchable desire of mankind to improve the ways of measuring time. True, for the creation and development of precise instruments that could accurately reflect time, sometimes years and decades of thoughts, thoughts and vain attempts of the inventor could go away. It is not for nothing that mechanical watches were considered the most complex technical device for three centuries.
So what is a chronometer? Chronometer (from ancient Greek χρόνος - "time" and μετρέω - "I measure") - watches with a very precise movement (mechanical or quartz). The development of the first chronometers began in Great Britain during the late reign of Queen Anne.
At that time, the question of accurately determining the geographical longitude during long sea voyages was acute. With the growing importance of transoceanic navigation, the need for accurate and reliable navigation at sea has increased.
In July 1714, the British Parliament established the Council of Longitude and offered monetary rewards to anyone who could find a simple and practical method to accurately determine the longitude of a ship.
Instead of a single prize, the commission offered a range of awards ranging from £ 2,500 to 20,000, depending on the accuracy achieved. Over the 114 years of the Council's existence, many awards have been paid, but John Harrison is worth noting.
He received more money than any other person. It took John Harrison 16 years to create the first example of a marine chronometer, the Marine Chronometer created between 1730-1735. Hidden at the National Maritime Museum, London
It is also worth mentioning Thomas Earnshaw, who was able to modify the marine chronometer and in 1805 received the prestigious £ 2,500 prize for his contribution to the development of the maritime business.
Chronometers in wristwatches
To receive the honorary title of chronometer, the movement must pass certain tests at the Institute of Chronometry COSC (Contrôle Officiel Suisse de Chronomètres) - this is the official independent Swiss testing institute of chronometers, responsible for confirming the quality and accuracy Swiss watches ... Today COSC is a kind of pride and isolation of the Swiss watch industry.
Really justified thing or marketing gimmick?
There is a dispute among watch lovers that the investment in COSC is not justified, that it is more an advertising element than a practical necessity. Since, in their opinion, most of the manufactured mechanisms, with a strong desire in the hands of a skilled craftsman, can be set to the same -4 + 6 seconds per day. However, we can say with confidence that the details that go into the mechanism, which are later sent for testing to the COSC institute, are a class higher.
Alternative to COSC
The watchmaking world does not sleep, and it so happened that manufacturers have their own internal checks, which allow them to compete, and in some cases even exceed the COSC standards.
The most accurate mechanical watches
Zenith defy lab
A couple of years ago, the Swiss watch brand operating in the luxury segment Zenith released an innovative movement, in mechanical watches it was possible to achieve an accuracy of + -0.3 seconds!
Swiss Military High Precision Movement
A similar technology is used in a well-known brand like Certina, only they call it Precidrive, since the ETA F06.411 mechanism is used by both manufacturers. Accuracy is also + -10 seconds per year.
Bulova has released the Precisionist movement, which has a smooth hand movement and achieves an accuracy of +/- 10 seconds per year. All thanks to a crystal oscillator operating at a frequency of 262 kHz, instead of the usual 32 kHz.
View prices and buy with a profitable cashback in the Bestwatch.ru online store
People often use the term chronometer as a synonym for watch. It, in turn, is replaced by the expression chronograph. But this is all wrong. Watch, chronometer and chronograph are completely different concepts that many users confuse and identify. For the first time the name chronometer was used in the 18th century by the talented master from Britain, John Arnold. What is a chronograph in a wristwatch, what is a chronometer, and how to use these devices, we will try to find out in the article.
What is a chronometer?
The chronometer is a mechanical watch with increased accuracy. In such walkers, the error will not be more than three to four seconds per day. John Harrison began to work on the first chronometers, the English watchmaker John Arnold continued his research, improved them and introduced this concept into everyday life.
He designed his creation for sailors so that they can easily determine the longitude. It was Arnold who gave the mankind a mechanical model of watches practically in the form in which we have them today. Thus, a chronometer is called a particularly accurate, most precessional movement.
Such movements always bear the inscription Certified Chronometer and before the manufacturers put them on sale, the watches are subjected to special testing.
For a model to be awarded the Certified Chronometer label, the manufacturer must ship it to Switzerland to the Institute of Chronometry COSC. Experts there will test the specimen using a variety of methods, subjecting it to temperatures and testing the specimen movement in various positions.
Since experiments cost a lot of money, the price of a chronometer watch, as a rule, is several hundred euros higher than the cost of ordinary accessories. By the way, the accuracy of the chronometer does not always correspond to the results of the research obtained. Indeed, its course is often influenced by the owner's habits, the rhythm of his activities, regularity of the plant .
What watches have the right to be called chronometers?
Only the most accurate watches have the right to be called chronometers. Therefore, it is rarely possible to find such specimens on the market. This is due to the gravitational force that affects all inanimate and living things on the planet. It is because of this force that the walkers in different positions go with an unequal level of accuracy.
You yourself have the opportunity to verify such a statement. Put the clock on the table for a day with the dial down, and with the onset of the next day, turn it upside down. Compare average daily traffic data and you will see that there is a difference between them.
If you place the accessory with the crown first up and then down, the readings will also be different. They will not be the same even if you put them with the indicator “12” up and down. As a result, there are six positions. The temperature of the watch is also influenced by the temperature, since the materials from which the elements of the movement are made differ by a different expansion index.
Thus, “wearing the title” of a chronometer is allowed only for those products that at least in five different positions at temperatures of + 38˚C, + 23˚C and + 8˚C run with an accuracy of -4 / + 6 seconds at 24 hours.
What is a chronograph?
A chronograph is a mechanism stopwatch and providing the ability to measure small time intervals. The modern chronometer complements the main purpose of the watch without affecting the functioning of the watch as a whole. At the beginning of existence, chronographs were separate devices that recorded data by putting ink dots with needles. This is where the second part of the name originated, which is a bit confusing when it comes to watches equipped with a chronograph option.
In the middle, the chronograph is a wheel movement system equipped with control rods. When the user activates "stop" or "start", the knee roller is activated, and in some cases even a special cam system.
The chronograph was invented by George Graham, who needed a mechanism that could measure small periods of time during horse races.
Varieties of chronographs
All existing chronographs today are divided into two types: flyback and split-chronograph.
Flyback is a chronograph with instant restart capability. It is necessary if there is no need in measuring time to fractions of a second. The need arises for pilots who perform maneuvers at specific intervals. Before the next time interval, the pilot has time to reboot the device and prepare for a new figure.
A split chronograph is needed when you need to measure the time of a couple of actions. For example, if a coach needs to measure the running of athletes who compete with one another. With a split chronograph, he can do it easily.
There are models in which two seconds hands ... They are located in the middle of the dial and are located one above the other. Nevertheless, if it is necessary to measure the duration of two actions that start at the same time and end at different times, then it is better to give preference to an ordinary chronograph with a split option.
For whom is a chronograph important?
A chronograph in a wristwatch is needed not only by athletes, but also by those who have devoted their lives to sailing or military art. There are special chronographs with specific scales for establishing distance in artillery units.
Chronographs are often used by doctors. With their help, they measure the pressure, the pulse of patients. Specific scale developed and mathematics. Today engineers have found application for it.
In general, chronograph wristwatches can be much more useful than you think. Each of the currently existing scales: telemetric, logarithmic, tachymetric or other able to make life easier and make the performance of professional duties more comfortable.
How does a chronometer work and how to use it?
Almost any modern wristwatch can be called a chronometer, however, in a professional society, this term can only be called those watches that show the time as accurately as possible. In short, the chronometer must function very accurately.
That is why the chronometer should be used in the same way as an ordinary watch.
Is there a chronometer in a wristwatch?
It is quite simple to check whether the purchased item is a chronometer. It is enough to consider whether the model has marking Certified Chronometer which we have already mentioned. We talked about the costly verification that hours must go through to get this designation.
Therefore, only three percent of wristwatches made in Switzerland are certified by the Controle Officiel Suisse des Chronometres.
Features of modern chronometers
Modern chronometers can have different looks and functions. In addition, most chronometers now have a chronograph option. Today you can see:
- sophisticated and whimsical mechanical or multifunctional mechanisms and flawlessly working quartz models;
- simple and summing chronometers;
- one-arrow and multi-arrow accessories;
- tachometric copies.
Since it is rather difficult to obtain the status of "incredibly accurate watches", it is rather difficult to find chronometers in collection series of wrist watches.
Accessories from the Pulsar company, which is a subsidiary of the Japanese company Seiko, are especially popular among fans of expensive wrist watches. The chronometer in the Pulsar men's wristwatch shows the time with incredible accuracy. In general, such products are preferred by stylish males who lead a dynamic lifestyle, adore beautiful and unique things.
Pulsar models are equipped with quartz movements, as well as Sapphlex double-ball "economic" glass with sapphire coating. For the production of the top layer, synthetic sapphire is used. For the non-functional bottom ball, the manufacturer chose budget material ... Mineral glass coated with sapphire has all the same qualities as a genuine sapphire crystal, but the price of such a specimen is lower.
It is not difficult to use a chronograph on a wrist watch. Special buttons are provided for starting and stopping the mechanism. With their help, you can activate the stopwatch, stop the countdown and reset the results. Increasingly, chronographs with one button are being actively replaced by sophisticated models with two hands.
Thanks to such instances, you can simultaneously follow two events with different duration and starting point
Such mechanisms are controlled by means of three buttons, so you can stop any one arrow. If you are using a chronograph with a flyback option, you can reset the results to zero and activate a new countdown with just one button.
How to choose a chronograph watch?
When choosing watches equipped with a chronograph, it is necessary to pay attention to the readability of the latter. Presented on the market great amount models with stopwatches, the readability of which is not even good. Each manufacturer tries to create a unique, unlike other dials, which negatively affects the chronograph.
Due to the fact that the dials have ornate shapes, the chronograph becomes inconvenient to use: it is impossible to understand what specific results it demonstrates. Therefore, if you need a chronograph, and even more so if you will use it in the dark, then carefully study and test the proposed copy.
Can all watches be called chronometers? What is the difference between a chronograph and a chronometer? What is it anyway? Many people get confused about the terms, and some think that these names mean the same thing. But this is not at all the case. Let's figure it out.
Translated from the ancient Greek chronometer means "Measuring time". Often this is the name of any watch, but this is wrong. A chronometer is called only a watch of special precision that has passed special tests and received certificates. Chronometers first appeared in England in the 18th century. John Harrison was the inventor of the nautical chronometer (which is now kept in the National Maritime Museum in London).
The concept of a chronometer in a wristwatch appeared in the 20th century. During this period, American watch firms began to compete with the old Swiss manufactories. To emphasize the quality and accuracy of watches, Swiss companies began to add the marking “chronometer”.
What is the difference between chronometers and ordinary watches? The error of the chronometers is no more than 3-4 seconds per day when used in normal temperature conditions, while in a simple watch there may be minute errors.
In order for a watch to be recognized as a chronometer, the movement must be tested at the COSC Chronometry Institute (Contrôle Officiel Suisse de Chronomètres). COSC is the official independent Swiss testing institute for chronometers. It is he who is responsible for confirming the quality and accuracy of watches.
Swiss watches Ulysse Nardin Marine Chronometer
Rolex watches Datejust 41
Chronograph (translated from ancient Greek "recording time") is a function in hours, a complication that allows you to measure short periods of time (seconds, minutes and hours). The chronograph was invented in the 18th century by the founder of the Graham brand, George Graham.
The chronograph is not related to the watch movement, so its measurements are very accurate. Initially, chronographs were used only by military and professional athletes. Now this function is useful for fans of sports and outdoor activities, divers, sailors, pilots, doctors, businessmen, and anyone who wants to organize their time.
Chronograph meters usually consist of a central second hand - it works as a stopwatch, as well as separate dials with a counter of 30 or 60 minutes and 12 hours.
The chronograph is controlled using buttons on the watch case. As a rule, the top button is responsible for "start" and "stop", and the bottom - for resetting indicators. Sometimes, instead of buttons, a crown is used, then successive presses on it are responsible for starting, stopping and resetting.
Audemars Piguet Royal Oak Offshore
Breitling Colt Chronograph
Also, a special lever can be responsible for controlling the chronograph, for example, as in the Graham Chronofighter Chronograph watch. The chronograph button is located at the 10 o'clock position. The start lever switches the chronograph on and off.
Graham Chronofighter Chronograph
Chronographs are divided into subtypes:
- Simple chronograph - only measures one period of time. Can summarize consecutive measurements.
- Split chronograph - measures several simultaneously started periods.
- Flyback chronograph - measurements are made with one button. In a conventional chronograph, you first need to start a measurement, then stop it, then reset it, and then start a new one. The sequence of actions is mandatory, and violation of it can lead to damage to the mechanism. Flyback allows you to stop, reset and start a new measurement with just one button press.
Flyback chronographs in our watch pawnshop:
Flyback chronograph Breguet Type XX Aeronaval
Flyback chronograph Breguet Type XXI
Watches with chronometers may have additional measuring scales. We list several types of such clocks:
- tachometer detects the speed of a moving object
- telemeter determines the distance to the sound source
- heart rate monitor measures heart rate
- an asthmometer measures your breathing rate
Tachymetric scale on the bezel of the Carl F. Bucherer Manero Perpetual Calendar
Should you spend money on a certified chronometer? Do you need a chronograph in a watch? It's up to you! And our watch center will help you choose a watch according to your needs. We offer original Swiss watches in perfect condition or new.
Chronometer (from ancient Greek. χρόνος "Time" + μετρέω "I measure") - watches with a particularly precise movement (mechanical or quartz) [one] .
For the first time the accurate marine chronometer was invented by the English inventor, the watchmaker Harrison in 1731, and in 1734 he brought it to practical use. In his invention, he was able to compensate for two main errors in the chronometer's movement - the change in the mechanical moment on the release stroke of the balance bar as the mainspring unwinds and applied temperature compensation for the length and elasticity of the balance bar thread from changes in the external temperature using bimetallic bending elements.
After improvement and cost reduction, the chronometer has become an integral part of the navigation equipment of (sea) ships and ships.
On floating craft, flying vehicles, it was used to determine longitude. Longitude is calculated from the difference between the local time of an astronomical event (for example, sunrise or sunset), and the time of the same astronomical event at the longitude of one of the observatories, the geographic coordinates (in particular, longitude) of which are known, for example, Greenwich, the longitude of which is worldwide taken as zero. (For more, see The problem of determining longitude.)
Over the past centuries, the design of the Harrison chronometer has remained practically unchanged (except for the manufacturing technology and materials). Currently [source not specified 2227 days ]such a chronometer is produced by the First Moscow Watch Factory under the 6MX brand.
As of 2015, chronometers are rarely used and only as a backup navigation aid in case of failure of all others, since they are supplanted by more accurate clocks with stabilization of the stroke by quartz resonators, accurate radio signals from radio stations and a global positioning system (GPS, GLONASS).
The standard accuracy of most modern mechanical watches made in Switzerland is within +/- 20 seconds per day. But there is a category of watches where higher accuracy is guaranteed, such watches are called chronometers.
Since the nineteenth century, various competitions have been held in Switzerland for the most accurate watches. Now, such competitions are not so relevant, but the high status of the Chronometer remains as attractive.
Less than 5% of all watches produced in Switzerland have the status of an Officially Certified Chronometer issued by the Swiss Official Precision Control Center (Contrôle Officiel Suisse des Chronomètres, or COSC for short).
In order for automatic movements to pass all the stages of rigorous testing for accuracy, manufacturers must provide only the best examples.
16 days in the laboratories of this center, participants from all over Switzerland are tested for the title of chronometer. Accuracy measurements are carried out in three temperature modes (–3 ° С, +23 ° С, +38 ° С), in five positions in space.
At the end, the error of the movement of the mechanism should not exceed -4 / + 6 seconds per day. For quartz, deviations fluctuate per day +/- 0.07 seconds and +/- 0.2 seconds at temperatures of 8 ° C and 38 ° C, respectively.
Not all movements that have been tested receive the status of a chronometer. Those that, for one reason or another, did not pass the accuracy check are subject to disposal, they do not give second chances in the battle for accuracy.
Based on the results of all tests, an individual certificate is given for each movement, which indicates the dates when the tests were carried out and the accuracy values shown in various conditions.
In terms of the number of chronometer certificates, ahead of all Rolex, Breitling and Omega, this trio has been in the lead over the past few years.
Omega went further and, together with the Swiss Federal Institute of Metrology, METAS, developed the new Master Chronometer standard.
Unlike the COSC tests, where only movements are tested, Omega sends finished watches to METAS.
Since 2015, the brand's mechanical watches have undergone 8 tests, including tests for accuracy when exposed to a strong magnetic field, test for accuracy in six different positions and finally, a test for water resistance.
Watches that have received the MasterChronometer certificate have a stroke of 0 to + 5 seconds per day.
If you have any questions, write to us here.
By the way, the original Omega chronometers are available in Harold showrooms ... Take a look!
If the article was helpful, please do not forget to like it.
high precision portableClock
that have a certificate of a testing laboratory (for example, an astronomical observatory) and are used to store time (for example, the time of the initial meridian, which is necessary when determining geographic longitude in navigation, geodesy, etc.). H., along withSextant
ohm, is the main navigation device. The first to appear were naval chemistry, the need for which arose in the 16th and 17th centuries. in connection with the development of navigation and navigation. Pendulum clocks, which are highly accurate in stationary conditions, turned out to be unsuitable for navigation, because the shaking and rolling experienced by the ship on the high seas disrupted their course. Numerous attempts by H.Huygens
and other scientists to adapt the pendulum clock to work in sea conditions did not bring the desired result, M.V.Lomonosov
he was one of the first to substantiate the unsuitability of the pendulum for marine H.; he recommended the use of a balance regulator in H. and developed a clockwork mechanism with a four-spring motor to equalize the moment imparted to the balance. The first practical marine chemistry was created by the English. mechanic J. Harrison in the middle of the 18th century. based on a clock with a balance regulator. Thus, Harrison proved the possibility of creating a naval H., however, his proposed design of H. was not later used. By the late 18th - early 19th centuries. mechanical naval chronographs received a specific (in comparison with ordinary watches) design, which remained without significant changes until the 70s. 20th century They have a chronometer escapement, which, unlike the escapement, imparts to the balance not two, but one impulse per oscillation period, which providesIsochronism of oscillations
balance and higher accuracy of the X movement. The balance is mated with a cylindrical spiral and has a bimetallic split rim, which allows keeping the balance oscillation period constant when the temperature changes. A special device (the so-called snail or fusea) equalizes the torque of the mainspring during its descent from the beginning to the end of the winding. Marine hull is mounted on a gimbal suspension, which ensures the horizontal position of the hull when the ship is rolling.
In Russia since the 40s. 19th century X. was used in cartography to determine geographic longitudes. Russian astronomers V. Ya.Struve
and O. V.Struve
, P. M.Smyslov
made significant improvements in stroke control methods and methods for controlling temperature compensation X.
In the 40s. 20th century In connection with the emergence of new construction materials, improvements in the design of watch movements and their manufacturing technology, and also taking into account the high sensitivity of the chronometer escapement to shocks, in mechanical chronographs, especially small-sized ones, an anchor escapement began to be used (without reducing the requirements for accuracy). Pocket and especially wrist watches became widespread, which differed from ordinary watches only in the increased accuracy of movement, ensured by the high quality of manufacture and regulation of the mechanism of X. Good mechanical wrist watches have a daily rate of ± 3 sec; the change in their daily course when the temperature changes by 1 ° С is ± 0.2 sec. Pilots, machinists, engineers, doctors, and other specialists whose work is connected with the need to accurately measure time are used such chronographs.
When mechanical chimneys are used on expeditions in vehicles, they are sometimes mounted on shock absorbers. Under stationary conditions, for example, in a laboratory, in astronomical observatories, chimneys do not have amortization devices. Some chimes are equipped with a contact device for transmitting electrical impulses (for example, with a second interval). Chronology is controlled according to mean solar time (sea time) or sidereal time (time horizon for astronomical observations). Modern mechanical oversized chimneys have a dial diameter of about 100 mm (fig. ), in small-sized - no more than 80 mm. The chimney mechanism is installed on 15 stone supports; in the case of large-sized ones, one of the balance supports is made of diamond. The frequency of the plant is daily. Average deviation of the daily course of H. no more than 0.15 sec, change in the daily rate when the temperature changes by 1 ° С ± 0.05 sec. In combination with the precise time signals transmitted by radio, mechanical chimneys satisfy the requirements of modern modes of transport, as well as expeditionary and research work, in which it is required to store time with an accuracy of tenths. sec per day.
In the 70s. 20th century both large-sized (including marine) and small-sized (including wrist watches) electronic-mechanical and electronic quartz chronographs have become widespread.Quartz watch
). Such X. do not need a gimbal and shock absorbers, tk. the absence of moving elements in the mechanism makes them resistant to various kinds of shock. Quartz crystals do not require winding - one galvanic cell (for example, a mercury oxide cell.Mercury oxide element
) or silver oxide) is enough for a year of work. Electromechanical chimneys usually have a pointer, and electronic chimneys have a digital indication (on light-emitting diodes or liquid crystals). Quartz chimneys are distinguished by high stability of their course: the average daily rate of large chimneys is about ± 0.01sec,
and wrist ± 0.3sec.
For a month, the error of wrist H. does not exceed 5sec.
In the range from 0 to 40 ° С, the change in the daily rate of wrist X. does not go beyond ± 1sec.
Marine chronometer: 1 - chronometer; 2 - case; 3 - gimbal.
Every person is missing something. One money, another attention and love, the third health. But what is unambiguously lacking for everyone is time. That is why people have always dreamed of inventing a device with which they can accurately calculate the time in order to manage it rationally.
However, most early watches were highly unreliable and dependent on environmental conditions. But once an ultra-precise device for measuring time was invented - a chronometer. This amazing invention, oddly enough, influenced not only the lives of ordinary people. First of all, the invention of this device helped sailors to better navigate the high seas.
What is a chronometer?
The word "chronometer" itself comes from a combination of two Greek words: "time" (chronos) and "measure" (meter).
From the very name of the device it becomes clear that its purpose is to measure time. In other words, the chronometer -this is a clock,
however, they are very reliable, able to continue to work in all conditions and in frost and tropical heat.
The history of the emergence of chronometers
Chronometers were not the first mechanical watches. However, the watch movements before them were very fragile and easily broke under unfavorable external conditions. Moreover, even under normal circumstances, the clock began to "lie" over time.
But that all changed in 1731, when a British watchmaker named Garrison invented the chronometer. This invention became very important for the development of maritime business. Since Garrison's device continued to show absolutely accurate time in any conditions, this helped the crew determine the longitude, and then the coordinates of the vessel.
Despite its high cost, the chronometer began to be used quite often on ships, and with the development of aeronautics, on airplanes.
It is noteworthy that Harrison's design was so perfect that over the past years, it has practically not changed. The only thing was that some of the materials of the chronometer were replaced with more modern, lightweight and durable ones.
Harrison's invention (before being supplanted in the twentieth century by the simpler and cheaper nautical watches with quartz resonators and GPS) was the safest way for sailors to determine their location.
As a rule, all marine chronometers were of the same standard design. A clock mechanism was placed in a special (most often wooden) case. Thanks to the design of the case, it kept the chronometer horizontal in any situation. The case protected the watch mechanism from the effects of temperature changes on it, as well as changing the position of the device.
Chronometers in wristwatches
With the invention of ultra-precise watches, many private individuals began to dream of having the same at home. On the basis of Harrison's invention, at first, they began to make ultra-precise wall and table clocks for the home. A little later, technologies made it possible to reduce the mechanism and create wrist chronometers, so necessary for busy people, for whom every second is worth its weight in gold.
Several decades have passed since the appearance of wristwatches with chronometer accuracy. And today every self-respecting wrist watch company has models with a chronometer in its lineup. Despite this, the most accurate and high-quality, naturally, is the Swiss chronometer.
Moreover, it is in Switzerland that watch movements from all over the world are tested, claiming to be chronometers. A specialized quality standard ISO 3159-1976 has also been developed for such watches.
How do I know if my watch has a chronometer?
Everyone dreams of owning a very accurate watch. And although most wrist accessories for measuring time indicate whether there is a chronometer in the watch, there are exceptions. Therefore, you can independently check its presence or absence in your own accessory.
To check, you need to make sure if the watch has a fresh battery or how long it has been in, so as not to violate the purity of the experiment. Next, you need to set the exact time. After that, the watch must be moved to the position with the dial down and left in this form for twenty-four hours. After the expiration of the period, you need to turn the watch upside down and leave it for another twenty-four hours. Now you can check the real time. If for two days of non-standard position the watch began to "lie" by only +/- 8-12 seconds - this is a chronometer. For large values, it is a normal clock.
You can try doing a home check in other ways as well. For example, hanging a watch on the wall is twenty-four hours in the usual position and the same amount vice versa. You can also check temperatures. However, it should be borne in mind that the watch should not cool down for a long time by less than eight degrees above zero and more than twenty-five degrees.
Chronometer vs. Chronograph: What's the Difference?
Speaking about wristwatches, many people often confuse such similar concepts as chronograph and chronometer. And although the words are very similar, their meanings are completely different.
If a chronometer is a watch with a special design of the movement that allows it to show the time accurately under any conditions, then a chronograph is a tiny subdial in watches with autonomous movements. Sometimes chronographs show a separate time or are designed for the second hand.
More than two hundred and fifty years have passed since then, the chronometer was invented. Since then, it is no longer as popular in the maritime business, especially with the invention of GPS navigation. However, its incredible accuracy remains unchanged to this day. Therefore, many people still dream of having a Swiss watch with a chronometer and always knowing the exact time.
Due to the similarity of sound, the words "chronograph" and "chronometer" are often confused, although in fact they are two completely different concepts. Both devices have a common purpose - to determine the time, but they do it in different ways. Any chronometer can be a chronograph, but not any chronograph can be a chronometer. Let's figure out why.
Chronograph - a mechanism built into the watch that allows you to record short periods of time. Unlike a conventional stopwatch, the chronograph performs functions such as starting, stopping and resetting the results without affecting the operation of the movement itself. Buttons are used to control the mechanism.
Chronograph literally means "recording time" - a combination of the Greek words chronos - "time" and grapho - "to write." Today such a name is often confusing, it can hardly be called successful, because modern chronographs are able to fix time intervals, but not record them. The explanation for this confusion lies in history. The earliest chronographs were equipped with ink needles, which, to record the time, put a dot on the dial.
The inventor of the chronograph is not one person with certainty. The first modern chronograph was invented in 1816 by Louis Monet for the study of astronomical objects. A few years later, the watchmaker Nicolas Riessec introduced the modifications necessary for mass production, thus fulfilling the instructions of the French king Louis XVIII, a big fan of horse racing. The king's desire to know the exact time it took a horse to cover the distance from start to finish was the reason for the first commercial chronograph, which soon went on sale. The first wrist chronograph appeared only at the beginning of the twentieth century thanks to the efforts of Gaston Brightling. The chronograph was equipped with a stopwatch and one control button, which only allowed the actions to be carried out sequentially.
Today, simple one-button chronograph watches have become almost a rarity, replaced by more complex movements. Summing Chronographs have two buttons: with the help of one you start or stop the stopwatch, with the help of the other - reset the results. Split Chronographs equipped with an additional module that drives the second hand, they are able to simultaneously record the time of two different events. Usually, there are three buttons in the control of split-chronographs: the first two, as in the case of totalizing chronographs, are responsible for starting, stopping and resetting, and the third for stopping one of the hands. There are also fly-back chronographs , they allow you to reset the readings and start a new one at the same time by pressing the button just once.
Chronometer Is a watch with a particularly precise movement, which has passed the obligatory certification by the official Swiss chronometry institute COSC (Controle Officiel Suisse des Chronometres). Each chronometer is tested individually and, having passed all the tests, receives the Bulletin du marche certificate of conformity.
Initially, the chronometer was created for ship navigation. In 1761, inventor John Garrison announced the completion of work on a device in a large wooden box. It, according to Harrison, was able to give sailors the long-awaited ability to accurately determine longitude during long sea voyages. The first tests confirmed the words of the Englishman - the chronometer worked, and a new era began in the watch industry.
Harrison did what no one had done before. The oscillation of the ship during movement did not affect the functioning of its chronometer; it was resistant to temperature changes and high humidity. The precise timing of Harrison's chronometer allowed the ship's crew to calculate the longitude - for every 15 degrees the ship was heading to the East, local time goes one hour ahead. For every 15 degrees West, time goes back one hour. Thus, knowing the local time at the point of the vessel's location, the sailors calculated the remoteness of places, both in the East and in the West.
The tragedy brought the chronometer to a new level of development - in 1891 a train disaster occurred in Ohio, USA. The local authorities learned the lesson and decided to develop a chronometer for use on the railway as soon as possible. Among the technical requirements for the device, its compactness was especially emphasized - Harrison's chronometer was the size of a small cabinet, which did not suit the railroad workers.
The creation of a new chronometer was undertaken by a man whose surname is immortalized in the name of the famous Ball watch manufactory. American Webster Clay Ball created the first chronometer in the format of a pocket watch, his innovation later migrated to wristwatches.
Wristwatches with a chronometer can be either mechanical or quartz. A quartz chronometer is slightly less susceptible to temperature changes, but this is a common property of all quartz watches. Nevertheless, let's not forget that in cold weather, quartz watches lag slightly, in warm weather they may be in a hurry. Moreover, an aging quartz crystal will become less and less accurate over time - all these circumstances must be taken into account. A quartz chronometer is usually bought in order to get a new one in a few years. The mechanical one, subject to the maintenance rules, is passed on to descendants only once.