Measuring Pregnancy: Causes, Symptoms

Measuring pregnancy

Measuring (undeveloped) pregnancy - a pathological condition at which the development is occurring, and then the death of the fetus. This is one of the varieties of pregnancy unbearab. Spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) immediately after death does not occur - the fruit remains in the uterus. From the deceased embryo, the organism is trying to get rid of later. It may take about 2 weeks or more before the spontaneous abortion is performed. During this time, the fruit begins to decompose, which is why intoxication of the body can occur. Therefore, without medical care in case of frozen pregnancy, it is not necessary.

Pregnancy can stop developing on any time, up to 28 weeks. The most often this state is detected on:

  • 3-4 week;
  • March 8-11;
  • 16-18 week.

The most "dangerous" period is considered to be 8 weeks when the child begins to be laid the main organs and systems. It is at that moment that the risk of development of violations is maximum.

A frozen pregnancy includes several factors:

  • non-viability of the fetus;
  • Lack of activity of myometrium (muscular layer of the uterus);
  • The pathology of hemostasis in a pregnant woman (violations in the coagulation system of blood).

Types of frozen pregnancy

There are two types of undeveloped pregnancy:

  • Anembonia - When there is no embryonic in the fruit egg (rounded formation, which surrounds the fruit. There are two reasons for such pathology. In the first case, the embryo is not formed from the very beginning, in the second - its development freezes at an early stage (up to 5 weeks of pregnancy). The cages of the fruit egg continue to multiply, and the HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin, "hormone of pregnancy") is produced as with normal pregnancy. Therefore, the results of pregnancy tests and HCG analysis will be positive.
  • Embryo's death - Initially, pregnancy develops normally, but then, due to the presence of certain negative factors, the fruit dies.

Causes of undervolving pregnancy

The main reasons why pregnancy can measure, can be divided into several large groups:

  1. Congenital and acquired anomalies of the uterus.
  2. Endometrial pathology (internal mucous membrane of the uterus).
  3. Acute infections.
  4. Genetic / chromosomal disorders.
  5. Hormonal disorders.
  6. Pathology of the coagulation system of blood.
  7. Other reasons.

К congenital pathologies of internal genital organs relate:

  • The counya uterus (anomaly, in which the uterus cavity is completely or partially divided by a partition into two parts - horns);
  • Full doubling of the uterus (a woman has two uterus and two vagina, each uterus has only one uterine tube);
  • A single uterus (only one half of the uterus is developed and there is one uterine tube);
  • Saddle-like uterus (the uterus has an almost normal structure, but in the center of its bottom there is a deepening).

Congenital uterus pathologies are detected approximately 10-25% of women with frozen pregnancy. Acquired anomalies are often diagnosed in patients who have undergone a cabinage (gynecological scraping of the uterus, during which the upper layer of the mucous membrane is removed). They may also be a consequence of previous frozen pregnancy. TO acquired anomalies internal genital organs Believe:

  • Eastic-cervical failure (premature disclosure of the cervix during pregnancy);
  • submucose Mioma (benign neoplasm that developed from the muscular layer of the uterus);
  • The occurrence of intrauterine adhesions.

Pathological states of endometry Could be the cause of unsuccessful implantation of the embryo or lack of fetal nutrition. This leads to pregnancy. The most frequent disorders, due to which the fetus dies are chronic endometritis and regenerator-plastic syndrome syndrome (condition, as a result of which the mucous membrane of the uterus is atrophically).

Acute infectious diseases It is not always caused by the death of the fetus, more often they cause the development of congenital anomalies in a child (deafness, heart defects, mental delays, etc.). And yet, in some cases, even ORVIs can provoke a fading of pregnancy. And to the most dangerous to fetal infections include rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes, toxoplasmosis, chlamydia, gonoron.

Genetic and chromosomal violations Often the pregnancy of pregnancy in the early stages (up to 8 weeks). In some cases, the fruit dies later - by 13-20 weeks, but this happens much less often. As a result of genetic and chromosomal violations, the fetus can be formed by karyotype (chromosomal set) incompatible with life. In this case, there is no point in the further development of the embryo, and it dies. Pathological genes are capable of transmitted from both the father and from the mother (and sometimes anomalies are due to the incompatibility of the genes of women and men), and chromosomal disorders arise directly in the process of cell division after fertilization. They can be high quality (defects in the structure of chromosomes) or quantitative (chromosomes are greater or less than necessary).

Hormonal violations May appear due to the presence of endocrine or reproductive systems or autoimmune violations in the future mothers. Pregnancy is able to measure in two cases:

  • With a lack of progesterone (hormone responsible for the preparation of the uterus to the implantation of the embryo);
  • With an excess of men's sex hormones in the body of a woman.

Pathology of blood coagulation system Mother may cause a failure of the fruit egg implantation process, damage to the uterine-placental vessels or disruption of the features of the placenta. All this can lead to pregnancy.

Sometimes the causes of undeveloped pregnancy remain unknown. In such factors that influenced the death of the fetus, in such cases, the genetic incompatibility of the child's parents or the presence in the organism of the Mother of Alloimmune antibodies that can cause rezv conflict.

Risk factors

Measuring pregnancy

There are risk factors, in the presence of which the probability of pregnancy fading increases. They can be uncontrollable (that is, they cannot be eliminated) and controlled (they can be eliminated or compensated). To uncontrolled factors include:

  • Age. The older the woman, the higher the risk of undeveloped pregnancy.
  • Strong stress.

Among controlled factors:

  • Preceding abortions, miscarriages, frozen pregnancy. Than them are more, the higher the probability of the death of the fetus;
  • Wrong lifestyle. Harmful habits (smoking, drinking alcohol, caffeine abuse) and unbalanced food during pregnancy may adversely affect the state of the fetus;
  • Chronic diseases of a woman, both gynecological and pathology of internal organs and systems (severe diseases of the cardiovascular system, liver and kidneys, diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovarian syndrome, systemic red lupus);
  • ECO. For so far not identified reasons among the frozen pregnancies, more those that have come as a result of extracorporeal fertilization. In this case, the fetus usually dies up to 12 weeks;
  • Diseases of the reproductive system in men;
  • Multiple pregnancy;
  • Significant deviations of the body mass index from the norm in a woman (too small weight or strong obesity);
  • Impact on the body of the future mother of toxic substances (for example, inhalation of vapors in harmful production);
  • Reception of some anti-inflammatory drugs in the early periods of pregnancy. Future mom must consult with a doctor about any medicine that is going to accept.

Often, pregnancy fading is provoked by several factors.

Symptoms

Sometimes the undeveloped pregnancy does not make itself felt any manifestations, and the woman learns about the pathology after the planned ultrasound. In other cases, such symptoms may be observed as:

  • Pain pulling or nocturing character at the bottom of the abdomen, in the back area;
  • Moaching bleeding from the vagina - from pinkish to brown;
  • In the early time - the sharp disappearance of signs of toxicosis, if it was;
  • A sudden decrease in the basal temperature (the lowest temperature of the body, set in rest, is measured in the rectum);
  • General ailment: weakness, headaches, nausea, chills, etc.;
  • Changes in the chest. In the early period of pregnancy, the loading of the mammary glands stops, pain disappear. The chest becomes soft. In the later dates (after 22 weeks), on the contrary, the dairy glands can swell capable when measuring pregnancy. Sometimes milk is distinguished from the breast (not colostrum).
  • No fetal movements. When first pregnancy, movements usually begin after 22 weeks (maybe a little earlier), with the second - after 18 weeks. If there are no jolts at the time limit, you need to consult a doctor.

If there is a focus of inflammation in the body, a slight increase in body temperature can also be observed.

The above signs are not necessarily talking about frozen pregnancy. It is possible that the fruit is developing normally, and the manifested symptoms indicate the presence of completely others, not such terrible, violations. But in the presence of these signs, we need to see a doctor as soon as possible.

Diagnosis of frozen pregnancy

First, the general and gynecological examinations of the patient are carried out. About the undeveloped pregnancy, the doctor will report the following signs:

  • low tone of the uterus;
  • Low temperature in the rectum;
  • Mind of the sizes of the uterus of pregnancy.

Then the ultrasound is carried out, blood test for hormones. According to the results of the ultrasound, when measuring pregnancy can be identified:

  • absence in a fruit egg embryo;
  • signs of chorion detachment (germinal part of the placenta);
  • lack of heartbeat fetal;
  • fuzzy visualization of the fetus.

In the presence of a patient for those or other diseases (sexually transmitted infections, a cardiovascular or endocrine system, kidney, liver, etc.), the expert consultation will be required, whose competence includes existing pathology.

Treatment

Treatment can be both drug and surgical. The main goal of all medical events is the liberation of the uterus from the deceased fetus and the prevention of complications (the emergence of inflammatory processes, intoxication of the body, etc.). Doctors choose the treatment method based on the period of pregnancy, the body's condition of the patient, the presence of concomitant pathologies, etc.

In early terms can be carried out:

  • Medical abortion . It is carried out up to 6-7 weeks of pregnancy. The patient is prescribed drugs, under the influence of which the uterus is reduced and the expulsion of the fetus.
  • Vacuum aspiration. It is carried out up to 12 weeks of pregnancy. The uterine cavity is emptied using a special vacuum suction, entering the tip of the device in the cervix without installing expanders. The procedure is carried out under local anesthesia or general anesthesia.
  • Kyuezhezh (scraping the uterine cavity using a surgical instrument called a curette). The operation is carried out under general anesthesia. This is a fairly traumatic procedure, as a result of which the endometrium is damaged. An expander is introduced into the cervical cervical channel, and then scraping with the removal of the upper layer of the uterine mucous membrane. After the operation, the woman within a few days to avoid the development of complications is in the hospital. The biological material obtained as a result of scraping is sent to histological examination - with its help, the doctors faster and more accurately determine the cause of frozen pregnancy.

After extracting the fetus from the uterus, antibacterial drug therapy is usually carried out.

In later dates, take such measures:

  • artificial stimulation of generic activity;
  • cesarean section.

After treatment, the patient is recommended to pass the following surveys (to prevent re-frozen pregnancy):

Prevention

Measuring pregnancy

The main preventive measure is pregnancy planning, including:

  • General medical examination, during which you can identify diseases that can affect pregnancy;
  • Gynecological examination - for the timely diagnosis of pathologies;
  • Identification and timely treatment of hormonal disorders;
  • Prevention of infections (if necessary, you can make vaccinations from the most dangerous diseases for the fetus).

At the occurrence of pregnancy, it is necessary to monitor the correctness of nutrition, wearing clothes, not tightening the abdomen, try to avoid stressful situations and heavy physical exertion, reduce the time of work at the computer. Fresh air needed daily. Refuse bad habits (if any) is recommended at the planning stage.

After a frozen pregnancy, taking new attempts to conceive not earlier than 3-6 months. However, this period is very conditional, and in each particular case can be different. Regarding the deadlines of the planning of a new pregnancy, it is recommended to consult a doctor.

Measuring pregnancy: why arises and how to avoid

Measuring pregnancy. Symptoms of frozen pregnancy, the reasons for the failed miscarriage. Pregnancy after frozen: when you can get pregnant after miscarriage.

From 10 to 20% of all pregnancies are interrupted spontaneously. For most women, it becomes a huge tragedy - horror and panic from pain and abundant bleeding turn into shock. However, every tenth (and for some data - every fifth) such a pregnancy is interrupted. It is unnoticed: while the woman is trying on the role of a future mother, a new life quietly fades. Why does this happen, how to understand that pregnancy was interrupted, and how to avoid it?

Measuring pregnancy or failed miscarriage is the death of an embryo or fetus with a long delay in the uterine cavity. The intrauterine death of the fetus or embryo on an early term causes "Dead Fetal Syndrome": the contractile activities of the uterus are oppressed, and hemostasiological disorders arise in the body of the mother - bleeding and the formation of thromboms.

In the first trimester in 75% of cases, the death of the embryo precedes symptoms of the threat of pregnancy.

Unfortunately, in the event of a frozen pregnancy, the death of the fetus is irreversible. It is impossible to somehow "get toad" and launch the process of developing the kid again.

When pregnancy can measure

The danger of the intrauterine death of the fetus is on any gestation period, but the likelihood of this tragedy is higher in certain periods. So, according to statistics, most often a frasonal pregnancy is diagnosed:

  • for 3-4 weeks;
  • on March 8-11;
  • May 16-18.

Failure to pregnancy at the earlier period As a rule, they are associated with anthembrionia - pathology, in which the fertilization of the egg occurred, but the cells did not begin to share (often the problem is caused by sperm quality). Such a fertilized egg behaves "as a healthy" - getting into the uterus cavity, causes the corresponding changes and even begins to form the fetal shells. But after a couple of weeks, such a pregnancy is interrupted.

8th week - The period of embryogenesis, bookmarks of the main organs of the embryo, it is at this moment that the manifestation of genetic anomalies that make the fruit with a non-visual basis.

The reasons why fooling takes place on the 16-18th week There are still disputes among specialists. Perhaps the reason for an incorrectly formed placenta (this process is completed at the 15th week).

How to suspect a frozen pregnancy

Often in the first days after the pregnancy of the pregnancy, the well-being of a woman even improves: toxicosis ceases, the sensitivity of the nipples is disclosed - what is worried about women in the first trimester. They turn to the doctor when there are already really disturbing signs - pain at the bottom of the abdomen and bloody issues . In the second trimester, the woman raises the woman earlier - when she ceases to feel the movement of the child (normally about 10 days of the child per day is felt on the period of 18-20 weeks).

” All this (and even bleeding) does not necessarily indicate a pregnancy interruption, but this situation requires urgent consultation of your doctor!

If you do not consult a doctor, then the fruit, alas, begins to decompose in the uterine cavity: the selection becomes purulent, the temperature increases, finally, the most formidable complication - the DVS syndrome (disseminated intravascular coiling, which is characterized by the formation of blood clots in blood vessels while reducing blood clotting ) - All this without emergency medical care can lead to a fatal outcome.

As a doctor will determine the frasonal pregnancy

The first thing that will force any doctor tolerance is the inconsistency of the size of the uterus and the fetus obstetric date of pregnancy. Even if there are no signs of frozen pregnancy - this is a reason for a thorough examination.

The second sign that the doctor will alert during the inspection, "he will not hear the heartbeat of the child (for the 18-20 week it can already be done with a stethoscope). However, this is not a mandatory sign, since the location of the placenta on the front wall of the uterus does not allow a doctor to hear heartbeat, nor mother - to feel the movement of the kid.

” To confirm or dispel concerns, the doctor will appoint additional surveys. This is an ultrasound (ultrasound) study, as well as an analysis of the level of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in the blood.

The error, unfortunately, is impossible. If the level of hCG does not correspond to the period of pregnancy, the doctor does not see the heartbeat on the ultrasound, the pregnancy has already been interrupted! It is necessary to complete this process as soon as possible until the consequences are unfavorable for health.

How to interrupt a frasonal pregnancy

If the doctor is confident that the process of abortion of the deceased fetus has already begun, then, most likely, he will provide a woman's body to cope with the problem independently. The frozen pregnancy will end with miscarriage, and this, no matter how unpleasantly sounds, the most favorable outcome.

For up to 8 weeks of pregnancy, special medicines are possible - the process will be similar to a drug abortion.

Finally, surgery is required at a later date. The doctor will take the same action as during the usual abortion: uses vacuum aspiration or scraping the uterine cavity. Even if you are fundamentally against abortion, you must understand that in this case it is a necessary operation - the child has already died.

” Regardless of whether the miscarriage has occurred, or the deceased fruit was removed by the surgeon, the doctor will definitely assign you antibiotics. Do not neglect this recommendation, such therapy will help to avoid infection of the uterine cavity and in the future to endure a healthy child!

Why pregnancy freezes

The most common reason is Genetic fruit anomalies causing disorders incompatible with further development. Not always "culprits" of this mother, father or both immediately - there are random mutations, while both parents are completely healthy in the genetic plan.

” Most often, such a pregnancy is interrupted in the earliest time: 75% of genetically abnormal pregnancies are interrupted on a period of 6-7 weeks, about 20% - in 12-17 weeks, no more than 7% of such kids develop up to 28 weeks.

In second place - Hormonal violations in the organism of the mother : Lack of progesterone, diabetes mellitus, hyper- and pituitary gland, hyperandrode - increased maintenance of men's sex hormones and a number of other pathologies. It should be noted that most of them are not an absolute obstacle to a safe toaling pregnancy, but require mandatory correction, and the preparation must begin until the moment of conception.

Its share in spontaneous interruption of pregnancy is played and Autoimmune diseases In particular, antiphospholipid syndrome provoking thrombosis. This is the main cause of the death of the embryo after the 10th week of pregnancy. It should be noted that timely therapy reduces the negative impact of this factor and allows you to bear and safely give birth to a healthy child.

Infections. Contrary to common misconception, "from a cold" pregnancy is not interrupted. The main infectious perpetrators of frozen pregnancy - rubella and flu, especially occurring with complications. However, among the causes are other diseases: cytomegalovirus, herpes, toxoplasmosis (especially if the infection occurred already during pregnancy), all types of sexually transmitted diseases.

Extracorporeal fertilization. For unknown, the reason for absolutely healthy embryos, suitable in the uterus of the perfectly prepared woman, can remain in their development on the early term.

Among indirect causes are also called age of parents especially mother. Most likely, this is due to the fact that with age "accumulates" and the risk of genetic "errors", and the goods of infections, and the number of chronic diseases.

” In 20 years, spontaneous interruption of pregnancy threatens approximately 10% of women, at 35 years - 25%, at 45 years old - 50%.

How to avoid measuring pregnancy, and what is the probability of her repetition

Alas, it is impossible to fully guarantee yourself from an unfavorable outcome, because, as stressed above, a number of genetic "breakdowns" - the result of the case. And yet, if the first pregnancy turned out to be frozen, it is recommended to give the remains of the fetus for a genetic study to find out if such a result is the result of heredity.

” The risk of re-spontaneous interruption of pregnancy in the presence in the history of one miscarriage is about 8% (that is, exactly the same as in any woman, regardless of the number of successful childbirth).

However, if the following pregnancies end with miscarriages, then, most likely, the risk is about serious genetic disorders. So, the probability that after three miscarriages and the fourth pregnancy will be interrupted early - 40%, fifth - more than 60%. Do not experiment with your own health and risk the opportunity to become a mom. After two pregnancies interrupted, be sure to consult genetics and, if necessary, use the ECO procedure. The choice of a genetically healthy embryo will significantly increase the chances of enduring and give birth to a healthy child.

” If you have no genetic anomalies and influencing the disease influencing the child, then you can plan a new pregnancy after 3-6 months after frozen.

If it turns out that non-genetic violations became the cause of pregnancy, it is necessary to pay attention to the treatment and preparation for conception. Do not rely on the will of the case.

For infertility after the only frozen pregnancy - a rather rare complication (less than 10%), but repeating meal pregnancy themselves becomes a risk factor, causing hormonal failures.

What can we advise moms whose pregnancy failed

  • What happened to you is not uncommon. Modern studies prove that each fifth pregnancy is interrupted spontaneously. Just some miscarriages occur at such an early term that women do not even suspect that they were pregnant, considering what was happening the removal of the menstrual cycle.

  • Remember: You are not guilty of what has happened, as well as the father of the child, and doctors. The chances of this child were not higher than if the pregnancy did not come at all.

  • What happened to you is a tragedy. Do not be afraid to discuss it with my husband, parents, girlfriend. Do not closure to yourself! Feel free to turn to a psychologist.

  • Measuring pregnancy in the overwhelming majority is an accident. Nothing will prevent you from getting pregnant and give birth to a healthy child. Chances that one more pregnancy will be interrupted, exactly the same as your girlfriend, who has no children yet. Or like a friend who has five children ... in other words, unfavorable statistics do not accumulate, every time everything starts with a blank sheet.

And let the happy story of motherhood appear on this pure sheet!

11/28/2018

Prepared Anastasia Sergeev

 Materials used in preparing publication Measuring pregnancy

Measuring pregnancy - One of the forms of unbearable fetus, characterized by a complete cessation of the development of the embryo and its death. There is such a pathological condition in 1-2 trimester and is manifested by the cessation of toxicosis, the appearance of blood blood, hyperthermia. In the period 18-28 weeks the main symptom of frozen pregnancy is the complete cessation of the motor activity of the fetus. The diagnosis is set on the basis of an objective inspection and ultrasound data. The treatment is to provoke an artificial abortion with the help of medicines or cleaning the uterine cavity from the fetal egg and its shells.

General

Family pregnancy is a construction stop and stopping the life of the fetus in the womb, which is diagnosed up to 28 weeks of embryogenesis. Such an obstetric pathology more often develops from primary women older than 30 years. According to statistics, patients over 40 years of 40 years are subject to the development of frozen pregnancy. The risk of frozen pregnancy in this case can be conjugate with hormonal instability, possible numerous abortions and sexual infections. Therefore, pregnant women at that age should carefully monitor their well-being and be sure to fulfill the appointment of the doctor.

A frozen pregnancy in the early period is more often diagnosed in terms of 3-4 and 8-11 weeks. At these moments, the most important anatomical structures are forming, and at this stage, the embryo is the most sensitive to the effects of negative factors from the outside. There is also a sufficiently high probability of development of frozen pregnancy for 16-18 weeks. What is the liner, specialists cannot specify specialists. However, it should be noted that after 4 months of embryogenesis, the risk of the appearance of frozen pregnancy is reduced.

A frozen pregnancy represents a real threat to the mother's body. In addition to mental injury, which the patient is experiencing, losing a child, there is a threat to her health and life. In such a situation, further pregnancy becomes impossible, the body begins to reject non-visual fruit, provoking spontaneous abortion. If a frozen pregnancy is not accompanied by a similar outcome, and the woman does not appeal to the doctor, when the dead fetus is in the womb of more than 1.5 months, there is a high risk of the development of the DVS-syndrome - disseminated intravascular blood coagulation, in which fibrinolysis factors lose their activity and the resulting bleeding accompanied by direct threat of fatal outcome.

Measuring pregnancy

Measuring pregnancy

Causes of frozen pregnancy

A fromy pregnancy provoke various factors that are somehow affected by a woman and fruit. The pathogenesis of this pathology in obstetrics is not fully studied and depends directly from the etiology of the disease. In any case, the woman's body perceives the fruit as a foreign body, and tries to turn it away. The growth of the embryo ceases, pregnancy freezes, which is accompanied by the corresponding symptomatic. Approximately 70% of similar pathologies, genetic anomalies become the main factor provoking the offensive of frozen pregnancy. In case of chromosomal division, serious congenital defects that are incompatible with life can be formed. As a rule, the fetal death provoked by the genetic failure occurs at 8 week of embryogenesis.

Approximately with the same frequency, pregnancy fading occurs against the background of hormonal imbalance. With reduced progesterone products - a substance that provides normal toaling, the fruit stops its livelihood. The reason for measuring pregnancy often becomes both an increased level of androgens - male sex hormones. To eliminate the likelihood of fetal death, it is important at the planning stage of conception to undergo a full medical examination and identify these factors if they are present. Pre-conducted treatment allows you to normalize the hormonal background and warn the frasonal pregnancy.

Infectious processes may also provoke a frozen pregnancy. The danger represents diseases of both the sexual sphere and any other organs. After conception, the body of the woman becomes less resistant to the effects of pathogenic microflora, so patients often sick ORVI, viral pathologies. The frozen pregnancy is developing not due to the harmful effects of the pathogen on the body of the fetus, but due to the concomitant symptoms - intoxication, hyperthermia. At the same time, the embryo does not precipitate certain components, in particular oxygen, and gradually loses vitality.

Among all infections, the risk of the development of frozen pregnancy is the highest when infected with a pregnant woman with rubella or cytomegalovirus. These pathogens penetrate directly to the fruit along with the bloodstream and affect the CNS, which contributes to the formation of heavy abnormalities in the fetus. For 2-3 months, embryogenesis provoke a fading of pregnancy can antiphospholipid syndrome. Against the background of this pathology, an abnormal formation of the placenta occurs, there is a violation of blood coagulation. As a result of blood circulation disorder, the fruit is not allowed and stops development.

A frozen pregnancy can occur under the action of non-specific negative external factors. With insufficient stay in the fresh air, constant fatigue, use of poor-quality food that does not ensure the receipt of the necessary substances into the body, the risk of developing pathology increases. Wearing too tight and cramped clothing can also lead to frozen pregnancy due to the narrowing of the supply vessels. As a result, blood circulation is disturbed, hypoxia develops with subsequent fetal death. The risk group for the emergence of a frozen pregnancy includes women, in the history of which there are stillwilders, multiple abortions and miscarriages, hormonal failures, disorders of the menstrual cycle. The probability of this obstetric anomaly increases with endocrine diseases, improper structure of the reproductive system organs (for example, a saddot or counya uterus), adhesive processes.

Symptoms of frozen pregnancy

Meal pregnancy for each patient is manifested with certain features, there is no standard clinical picture. The change in the basal temperature towards its reduction is a characteristic feature of pathology that occurs in the first trimester. When measuring pregnancy, women initially note the improvement in the overall state - the nausea disappears if she was present earlier, relief in the dairy glands. With objective inspection there is no increase in the uterus. When the patient's body begins to brand a dead baby, a frozen pregnancy is manifested by hyperthermia, chills, general well-being deteriorated sharply. The appearance of pain at the bottom of the abdomen, bleeding - the obvious signs of the abortion began. Often, a frozen pregnancy in the early stages is not accompanied by pathological symptoms up to the onset of spontaneous abortion.

In the two trimester of the manifestation of the obstetric anomaly will be exactly the same. An additional feature that appears in patients after 18-20 weeks is the lack of motor activity of the fetus. With an objective examination of a woman and carrying out auscultation to a frasonal pregnancy, it may indicate the impossibility of listening to the baby's heartbeat. To confirm the diagnosis and definition of medical tactics, when at least one disturbing symptom appears, the patient should immediately appeal to the akuster-gynecologist.

Diagnosis and treatment of frozen pregnancy

To confirm the frozen pregnancy, an objective examination of the patient is carried out. It is possible to establish a lack of increasing the uterus. Also the patient is prescribed a blood test for the content of hormone hCG. When pregnancy fading, its level is reduced and does not correspond to the indicators that are characteristic of this period of embryogenesis. Instrumental diagnosis is to carry out ultrasonic scan of the uterine cavity. When measuring pregnancy, there are no signs of fetal life activity (motor activity, heartbeat).

A frozen pregnancy requires immediate medical care, as the dead fruit, being in the womb, begins to decompose, and toxic substances are absorbed into the blood of the mother, leading to the deterioration of its state until the occurrence of death. First of all, the embryo is removed from the uterine cavity. When measuring pregnancy in the first 2 months of embryogenesis, artificial abortion is most often carried out with medication drugs. For this purpose, a combination of an analog of prostaglandin E1 and progesterone antagonist is used. As a result of the reception of these funds, the fruit is expelled from the uterus of the uterus due to its reduction (that is, there is a miscarriage).

Also, when measuring pregnancy can be carried out operational removal of a fetal egg. For this purpose, vacuum aspiration or scraping is used. The first method is the name of the mini-abortion and is a "suction" of the embryo using a special vacuum aspirator. With such interference, local or general anesthesia is shown depending on the psychological state of the patient. Vacuum Aspiration is a quick and painless way to treat frozen pregnancy, to apply which can be used only in the first trimester of the tooth.

A frozen pregnancy in the first trimester can also be interrupted by scraping the uterine cavity. This operational intervention implies a curethip (cleaning) of the uterus in order to remove a dead embryo and the fetal shells. This procedure is also carried out under anesthesia, is painless, however, it may be the cause of thinning myometrium, which will further lead to the impossibility of implantation of a fetal egg with the development of infertility. When measuring pregnancy, scraping is carried out in cases where other methods are contraindicated. If pathology is diagnosed in the second trimester, dead fruit is removed by conducting artificial clans.

After surgical treatment of frozen pregnancy, medication therapy is appointed. In order to prevent the development of the inflammatory process and the infection in the uterine cavity of the patient, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed. In addition, after eliminating a frozen pregnancy, an important role is paid to the restoration of the functionality of the endometrial so that the patient is subsequently able to render a child. This uses hormonal and immunocorrorizing therapy.

As symptomatic treatment, instant pregnancy, antispasmodics are prescribed, drugs that contribute to a speedy reduction in the uterus. In parallel with medication therapy, it is important to provide a woman psychological assistance. Many patients who suffered a frasonal pregnancy need to work with a psychologist who helps to respen quickly with the occurrence and restore the normal psycho-emotional state.

Forecast and prevention of frozen pregnancy

It is impossible to save the fetus when measuring pregnancy, however, for a woman, this pathology is usually prognostically favorable. After removing a dead embryo and conducting medication, the patient may return to the usual way of life. Plan the following conception after frozen pregnancy is permitted no earlier than six months. At the same time, it is desirable to establish the possible causes of the fetal death in order to subsequently eliminate the influence of these factors on the woman's body.

Prevention of frozen pregnancy is, first of all, in the planning of conception. Both partners must pass a full medical examination and massacre all identified diseases that can provoke the intrauterine fetal death. It may be necessary to consult genetics to diagnose hidden chromosomal anomalies in one or both spouses. The patient to prevent the development of frozen pregnancy after conception should be strictly followed by the prescriptions of the doctor, abandon the bad habits, to avoid stress, to normalize the diet, labor and recreation regime. It is important to be less in places of mass clusters of people to reduce the risk of infectious diseases.

Measuring pregnancy is an interruption of the intrauterine development of the fetus long before the deadline, that is, the death of the fetus. At the same time, for some time the condition does not exhibit in any way, and the embryo is in the uterus, so the pathology is also called the failed miscarriage. Failure to pregnancy can occur every woman, regardless of her age. Statistics shows: about 20% of all registered pregnancies are undeveloped.

Reception gynecologist - 1000 rubles. Consultation on the results of analyzes or ultrasound - 500 rubles.

Types of frozen pregnancy

Depending on the deadlines and the flow of the process, two types of pregnancy fraud are distinguished:

  • Empty fruit egg. The troubled pregnancy of this type is diagnosed when the conception has occurred successfully (the egg cell was fertilized and fixed to the uterine wall), and the embryo is absolutely not developed. In other words, there is a full formation of extraordinary organs, and there is no fruit in the egg.
  • True fetal death. The fruit was formed, but for some reason stopped developing and died. The termination of the development of the fetus can occur on any gestation period, but most often it happens in the first trimester. Failure of pregnancy can occur due to the influence of many factors. There are often cases when doctors can not determine the true cause of stopping the development of the fetus. This is especially dangerous, since if it is impossible to influence the cause, a multiple repetition of the situation is possible.

Measuring pregnancy

Why pregnancy freezes: reasons for banal

It is known for certain that provoking the occurrence of this pathology can:

  • Genetic deviations - The reason that occupies the leading position. It is usually manifested in the initial period (up to 8 weeks). Hereditary diseases can be transferred both by the women's line and for men. He cannot influence this factor in medicine, so when repetition of frozen pregnancies, pairs are offered to take advantage of reproductive technologies.
  • Hormonal disorders. There is due to a shortage in the body of a woman of progesterone, without which the embryo cannot develop, and the oversupply of men's hormones - androgen. Hormonal failures can be diagnosed and cured before the start of pregnancy. To do this, contact the gynecologist and Pass analyzes for sex hormones .
  • Artificial insemination . Most cases of fetal fetal cases occur precisely at this type of conception and pregnancy, as the conception is made in laboratory conditions. It already suggests that the family couple had serious problems with conception or tooling the fetus. Chances under such conditions on a good pregnancy are 20-25%.
  • Abuse of alcoholic beverages, smoking, drug reception, reception of some drugs . That is why doctors recommend temporarily abandoning the admission of medicines, especially on early when the child is not yet protected. The exception is the difficult diseases for which medication treatment is necessary.
  • Conflict Rezes Women and Fetal . It occurs for two reasons: with the incompatibility of the blood resume partners and after artificial abortions. The chance of successful toothing is significantly reduced if an abortion was previously made. The body accumulates antibodies generated in relation to the fetus, and it is difficult for a child to confront such an attack. As for the latest version, it has long been considered only an assumption, but now research confirms that the pregnancy of pregnancy after an abortion is often.
  • Negative factors and chronic diseases . Lifting weights, stressful situations, diabetes, flights on airplanes, etc. These are temporary factors, but if pregnancy froze for one of these reasons, it is necessary to draw conclusions and not repeat the situation.

Infections causing fetal death at different timing

  • Infectious diseases . The offensive of pregnancy is always a decrease in the immunity of a woman, so its body is open to bacteria and infections. The future child can also get infected. There are a number of very dangerous for the fetus of infections - they are called the complex Torch. This includes rubella, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus. For Redhead It is possible not only for the frozen pregnancy: if the fruit is surviving, he is waiting for heavy anomalies. And even the usual flu, windmill or ORVI carry a huge danger and for a woman, and for the fetus. These diseases affect the blood circulation of the future mother. From this there is a lack of oxygen and nutrients from a child and the fetus dies. Prevent a frozen pregnancy resulting from Torch infections It is easy - you need to pass the tests to the Torch complex before pregnancy. If it was not possible to do it before pregnancy, you need to undergo diagnosis on early.
  • Sex infections (STI, STD) . Mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, ureaplasmosis, syphilis, gonorrhea and other STIs carry a huge danger to pregnancy. Also, as in the case of a bargaining, a woman who did not cure in infection, a miscarriage of pregnancy or early childbirth is threatened. And the baby, if he born alive, will have to pay for the carelessness of the parents with disabilities. STD infections are also easily detected at the reception at the gynecologist - enough Rent a smear and wait for the results of the tests.

Symptoms of frozen pregnancy

The first thing that the woman should alert, - the disappearance of signs of pregnancy: nausea, vomiting, intolerance of odors, etc.

At all times of pregnancy, fetal fetal has almost the same symptoms:

  • Moaching bleeding vaginal allocations;
  • general weakness, chills, inner trembling;
  • high body temperature;
  • pulling a gravity pain at the bottom of the abdomen;
  • Toxicosis stopped;
  • Low basal temperature;
  • The size of the uterus does not correspond to the period of pregnancy;
  • Stop the growth of the mammary glands;
  • The complete lack of fetal movement (in the second trimester).

Pain in stomach or bleeding - a symptom of not only frozen pregnancy, and miscarriage - it is also a dangerous state. If you celebrate at least one of the signs of frozen pregnancy, contact the gynecologist immediately - he will send you to Ultrasound of a small pelvis where it clearly defines the state of the fetus on any time.

Photo of frozen pregnancy

The second test, which confirms concerns - analysis on Chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The blood test to the level of hCG is handed over to confirm pregnancy in the early stages. When measuring pregnancy, the HCG indicators first stop, and then their level is reduced.

The doctor on ultrasound sees the absence of an embryo in a fruit egg (with the first type of frozen pregnancy), the absence (or presence) of the palpitations of the fetus and stop the embryo growth (with the second type of pregnancy) ..

What is dangerous fetal fetal and what to do if it happened?

When diagnosing frozen pregnancy, it is impossible to slow, the fruit must be extracted as soon as possible. If this is not done, the following complications are guaranteed:

  • Inxication (severe poisoning) . The fabric of the dead embryo is beginning to break up, and decay products are immediately absorbed into the blood of a woman.
  • Disruption of blood intake.
  • Inflammation of uterus and nearby organs. Strong inflammation will lead to infertility, and if sepsis (purulent infection) begins, the uterus will have to be removed.

When confirming the diagnosis, you need to undergo a course of treatment to eliminate measurement pregnancy and to undergo diagnosis to identify the causes of pathology - it will be secure from recurrence in the future.

How to treat frossable pregnancy

Due to the hardest complications, a medical interruption of pregnancy is shown in the diagnosis of a frozen pregnancy. Treatment is strictly individually. It depends on the peculiarities of the pregnancy and the body of a woman. The following options are possible:

  • In terms of up to 6 weeks is carried out Vacuum Abortion - Vacuum Aspiration . This small-acting technique is necessary if pregnancy froze for a long time and some processes have already begun. A fruit egg is sucked by a special device. It is also a small-acting procedure. It is carried out using local anesthesia.
  • If the term is large, the procedure is carried out Paging of the uterus . This is actually a real surgical abortion.
  • Sometimes, if there are signs of a starting miscarriage, the doctor applies expectant tactics to occur in the spontaneous abortion.

After the extraction of the embryo is assigned a course of antibiotics for the prevention of endometritis and chorionenionitis. After 1-2 weeks, a woman needs to undergo an ultrasound examination to make sure that the uterus is cleared and healthy, postoperative recovery is successful.

The extracted embryo is necessarily sent to histology. An additional genetic study of its tissues is carried out if there is suspicion of chromosomal pathology.

How to make a frozen pregnancy be repeated?

To determine the reasons for fracturing and preventing it possible to repeat both partners, it is necessary to undergo a survey. Spouses will be assigned:

  • tests for thyroid hormones and sex hormones;
  • survey on all sexual infections;
  • Survey at bargaining infection.

In addition, a woman is held an ultrasound study of the small pelvis organs, the blood test is taken to be powered and on antibodies to its own phospholipids.

Any treatment and prevention will be directly dependent on the reason found. If the results of the tests are normal, the treatment may not be required at all: most likely the pathology of genetic disorders provoked.

To prevent the recurrence of the situation, the doctor appoints a woman oral contraception and balanced nutrition with multivitamins. This will not only strengthen the body, but will prepare for future pregnancy. Subsequent conception is recommended to plan a minimum in six months. Forecast after frozen pregnancy, if the reason was found and eliminated, positive. The probability of repetition of the situation is less than 10%.

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Publication date May 8, 2019. Updated October 4, 2019.

Definition of the disease. Causes of the disease

Measuring (undivided) pregnancy - This is the termination of the development of the fruit egg, the death of the embryo or fetus intrauterine, associated with a violation of the normal course of pregnancy. It is one of the types of reproductive losses, which often ends spontaneous miscarriage - Loss of the Fetal until 22 weeks of pregnancy when his weight is up to 500 g.

Stages of pregnancy

For numerous reasons, pregnancy may have an unfavorable outcome of an absolutely healthy woman. So, about 20% of clinically confirmed pregnancies end the fetal loss.

About 80% of the miscarriages occasionally happen at 12 weeks or earlier. Among all the early miscarriages, a third of pregnancies are interrupted to 8 weeks due to the lack of embryo in a fruine egg (anambrium). [one] [2]

To date, four groups of reasons are distinguished, which lead to a frozen pregnancy:

  • malforms of genital organs;
  • chromosomal and genetic mutations of the embryo - the main causes of frozen pregnancy, they are detected in 80% of cases of frozen pregnancies; [one] [2]
  • The pathology of the endometrium (internal mucous membrane of the uterine cavity), under which it cannot provide normal pregnancy;
  • Changes in the blood processing system - hereditary thrombophilia and antiphospholipid syndrome.

Anatomical disorders, infections, endocrine diseases, as well as toxic, immunological and other factors can become different reasons for early miscarriages. [one]

Detection of the cause of frozen pregnancy makes it possible to exclude its re-occurrence. If, when examining the spouses, it was not possible to establish the cause of this pathology, then successfully subsequent pregnancy is permitted only in 65% of cases. [one] [five]

The risk factors of frozen pregnancy include:

  • Age: The older mother, the higher the probability of miscarriage (at 20-30 years, the risk of measuring pregnancy is 9-17%, at 40 years - 40%, at 45 years old - 80%);
  • consumption of alcohol (moderate), as well as cocaine;
  • excess caffeine consumption (4-5 cups of coffee or more than 100 mg of caffeine per day);
  • smoking (more than 10 cigarettes per day);
  • Chronic mothers diseases: thyroid pathology, antiphospholipid syndrome, thrombophilia, diabetes mellitus, and maybe, possibly, possibly polycystic ovarian syndrome;
  • Mother's infectious diseases: chlamydia, ureaplasmosis, syphilis, toxoplasmosis or mycoplasmosis;
  • Use of drugs: methotrexate, itraconazole, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, retinoids (vitamin A), PAROKSetin and Venlafaxin;
  • obesity;
  • Vices of the development and illness of the genital organs of the Mother: the injuries of the cervix, the mioma of the uterus, intrauterine fits, congenital anomalies of the uterus;
  • Inxication and harmful production factors: ionizing radiation (ultraviolet), pesticides, inhalation of gases used in anesthesia;
  • elevated temperature (more than 38 ° C);
  • Folic acid failure: can lead to a frozen pregnancy for 6-12 weeks due to the formation of anomalous karyotype (chromosomal set) of the fetus. [one] [four] [five] [8]

Sometimes there are cases when the patients have two episodes of fright pregnancy or its spontaneous interruption for a period of up to 12 weeks. In such cases, it is customary to talk about familiar early loss of pregnancy .[one] [2]

The risk of re-frozen pregnancy depends on the number of similar preceding cases: with the only spontaneous miscarriage, the risk of subsequent is 18-20%, at two - 30%, at three - 43%. The risk of undeveloped pregnancy in women, the previous pregnancy of which ended with childbirth, is 5%. [one]

Warning

When you find similar symptoms, consult your doctor. Do not self-medicate - it is dangerous for your health!

Symptoms of frozen pregnancy

Quite often, the first complaint with the undeveloped pregnancy becomes blood discharge from sex tract, in connection with which women and turn to the doctor.

In general, a variety of symptoms may appear when measuring pregnancy. They depend on the period on which the intrauterine fetal death (embryo) occurred or the development of a fetal egg ceased.

If pregnancy stops in the development in the first 12 weeks, then the uterus ceases to increase in pregnant, the nausea, vomiting and abundant salivation, which are characteristic of normally flowing pregnancy can disappear. When the dead fruit is in the uterus longer than three weeks, some women have a common weakness, dizziness and elevated body temperature.

Also, when measuring pregnancy in terms of 12 weeks, there may be no symptoms, that is, a woman may not suspect that pregnancy stopped developing. In such cases, the diagnosis is established with the next inspection of the doctor and the ultrasound of a small pelvis.

For a frozen pregnancy after 18-20 weeks may indicate the lack of fetal movements during the expected period or the cessation of the stamped movements. After 3-6 days after stopping the development of pregnancy, the breast load disappears, it can decrease in the amount, as well as the appearance of milk.

When fetal death at the 25th week of pregnancy and later, the dairy glands are loaded, a colostrum is distinguished. After 2-6 weeks after the cessation of the development of pregnancy, women complain about pulling pains at the bottom of the abdomen, blood selections from the genital tract may occur and miscarriages. [one] [3] [five] [8] Such situations require inpatient treatment to prevent bleeding and purulent-septic complications.

Pathogenesis of frozen pregnancy

There is no single mechanism for the occurrence of frozen pregnancy, since each cause of the fetal death has its own characteristics of pathogenesis.

Violation of genital anatomy

There are two types of sex tract anomalies:

  1. Congenital (detected in 10-25% of women with early fading of pregnancy):
  2. full doubling of the uterus;
  3. single, twin or saddot uterus;
  4. Complete and incomplete intrauterine partition.
  5. Acquired.
  6. The lack of cervix and the carname of the uterus;
  7. submucose (submucous) mioma;
  8. Intrauterine sobbing (ashherman syndrome is observed in 12-15% of patients with the usual non-peculiarity of pregnancy and in 30-33% with unsuccessful attempts of Eco).
Congenital anomalies of the uterus

With congenital defects The development of the uterus more often an interruption of pregnancy in late terms and premature births, and also there are early losses of pregnancy at the arrangement of a fruit egg on an intrauterine partition or near submucose mioma. [one] [2] [3] [five] [10]

With such Acquired anomaly As ashecherman's syndrome, synechia (spikes) completely or partially cover the uterine cavity. Most often, they arise as a result of the preceding scraping of the uterine mucosa and / or as a consequence of frozen pregnancy. So, after transferring one intrauterine operation, the risk of syndrome is 16%, and after three or more scraping - 32 and more%. [one] [2] [3] [five]

With any of these anatomical abnormalities, the pregnancy stops in development due to the unsuccessful attachment of the fetal egg (for example, next to a myomatous node or an intrauterine septum), insufficient blood supply to endometrial and chronic endometritis. [one] [2] [3] [five]

Genetic and chromosomal embryo anomalies

Such pathologies are the main cause of frozen pregnancy in early terms. [four] [10]

Normally, human cells have 46 chromosomes, that is, 22 pairs of autosomes that are in the core of each cell. With the change in their quantity or quality, various chromosomal "breakdowns" occur.

The older the mother becomes, the higher the risk of changes in the chromosomal set in the embryo, in which the number of chromosomes ceases to be multiple. [four] [10] Such anomalies include trisomy - diseases associated with the presence of three homologous chromosomes instead of two:

  • Down syndrome - the pathology of the 21st chromosome;
  • Pataau syndrome - pathology of the 13th chromosome;
  • Edwards Syndrome - the pathology of the 18th chromosome.
Explore 21 chromosome with Down syndrome

The fruit with one of these violations can still be born viable, but in the case of other trisomy options, everything can end the death of an embryo in the form of a frozen pregnancy. [one] [four] [five] [10]

Structural and Functional Disorders of Endometry

Endometrial pathologies are important factors of infertility and early losses of pregnancy. They may be associated with endocrinological problems, infectious diseases and autoimmune disorders.

Endometrial disorders that become reasons of underdeveloped pregnancy include:

  • atrophy (insufficient maturation) endometrial in the periovulatte period (three days before and after fertilization);
  • chronic autoimmune endometritis;
  • Syndrome of regenerator and plastic failure endometrial.

Thin endometrium , i.e. its atrophy is a consequence of hormonal imbalance, chronic infections and previously transferred operations. [3] [five] [8]

Chronic endometritis - This is a set of changes in an inflammatory endometrial. It is based on its pathogenesis lies damage to the endometrium, with the subsequent violation of the normal cyclic transformation and reduce the receptionability of the tissue (the ability to adopt the embedded germ), resulting in a pregnancy loss. This disease may occur due to bacteria, viruses and immunological processes, and agents such as chlamydia, staphylococci, herpes and others are capable of supporting it. [one] [2] [8]

Changes in a streaming blood system

A frozen pregnancy may arise as a result of immune violations. These include antiphospholipid syndrome, in which blood intake is increased.

Antiphospholipid antibodies are found in the blood in almost half of the patients with frozen pregnancy, and in healthy women in less than 4% of cases.

The causes of this syndrome are not fully known. There is an assumption that the concentration of antiphospholipid antibodies may increase against the background of infectious diseases. It is also believed that the occurrence of the syndrome is affected by genetic predisposition. [3] [five] [8] [10]

Polymorphism of hemostasis genes

The risk of measuring pregnancy is also bound by polymorphism of hemostasis genes. Mutations of the G20210A Prothrombin gene, Leiden factor, as well as the congenital deficiency of protein C / S and the antithrombin maximally increase the likelihood of blood clots and subsequent thromboembolism. As a result, pregnant women rises the risk of thromboembolism and underdeveloped pregnancy.

The polymorphism of MTHFR genes also causes thrombotic complications and can lead to insufficiency of folic acid in serum and erythrocytes, which is not absorbed upon admission to food. Folic acid deficiency disrupts the development of the outer shell of the embryo, placenta and pregnancy as a whole, which leads to frozen pregnancy, unbearably of the fetus and placental insufficiency.

Classification and stage of development of frozen pregnancy

According to the ultrasound of a small pelvis - the main method of diagnosing a frozen pregnancy - allocate two types of this pathology:

  • Anambrium is the lack of embryo in a fruit egg.
  • The death of the embryo or fetus (failed miscarriage) is stopping the development of the fetus in its initial normal formation.

The embryo in the fruit egg may be absent in two cases: when it was originally formed or stopped developing on the fifth week of pregnancy or earlier. In cases where, according to the results of the ultrasound, the embryo in the fetal egg cannot be detected, in addition to frozen pregnancy, it is also worth assumed by the early term of the development of pregnancy. [2]

Lack of embryo in a fruit egg

With the death of the embryo on the early period of pregnancy, according to the results of the ultrasound, it is possible to detect its destroyed parts or clutch. When fetal frivisions in late dates when conducting an ultrasound, the embryo cannot be detected, since its structure is split.

It is also worth noting that in most cases the threat of interruption of pregnancy or miscarriage in the early deadlines occur after the death of the embryo.

Complications of frozen pregnancy

The most frequent complications of underdeveloped pregnancy:

  • Endometrite (inflammation of the uterus);
  • Uterine bleeding.

These violations arise if the fruit egg does not remove the woman from the womb.

The main pathogens of the endometritis are:

  • Enterobacteria - intestinal wand (in most cases);
  • Gram-positive bacteria - streptococci groups B, enterococci, golden staphylococcus and others;
  • Unskorous anaerobes - bacteroids, peptococci and peptopulation. [one] [3] [four] [five] [8]
Endometritis

Depending on the extensity of infection of the uterine, three stages of development of the endometritis are distinguished:

  1. The spread of infection is the penetration of infection in a fruit egg and a decidual (dropping) mucous membrane of the uterus, which occurs after the implantation of the embryo.
  2. Complicated infection - infection goes beyond the uterine cavity, but it does not go beyond the boundaries of a small pelvic, that is, deep layers of endometrium, the muscles of the uterus, its veins and pipes, as well as the ovaries, the incompact fiber and the pyshino.
  3. Generalized infection - infection extends beyond the low pelvis, resulting in a spilled peritonite, sepsis and even septic shock. [one] [four] [five] [6] [7]

The intensity of uterine bleeding can be different. The actions of the doctor depend on this: the stronger the bleeding, the more aggressive there should be a doctor's intervention, who needs to quickly stop the bleeding and fill the blood loss. [one] [2] [3]

Diagnosis of frozen pregnancy

The main method for identifying frozen pregnancy is the transvaginal ultrasound - the introduction of a special sensor through the vagina to the uterine cavity for a more detailed estimate of its state.

The presence of frozen pregnancy will indicate the following signs:

  • Fetal CRT (the size of the embryo from the testicular to the sacrum) from 7 mm and more, no heartbeat.
  • The presence of a fruit egg with a diameter of 25 mm and more without embryo.
  • The lack of an embryo with a heartbeat two weeks after the previous ultrasound, a fruit egg was revealed without a yellow bag, which usually appears in the embryo in early pregnancy.
  • The absence of an embryo with a heartbeat after 11 days after a fruit egg was discovered with a yellow bag on the previous ultrasound.

This study also allows you to diagnose other pathological options for pregnancies that arise in the early stages, for example:

Prospects for the development of early pregnancy, as well as treatment tactics make it possible to determine the ultrasound with a dynamic measurement of the level of β-hCG (chronic gonadotropin) in the blood. [four] [five] [7] [nine] Normally, with a viable uterine pregnancy, up to 6-7 weeks there is a doubling of β-hCG every two days. [five]

Surveys pregnant after the previous case of frozen pregnancy :

  • Genetic research is recommended for repeating cases of underdeveloped pregnancy, as well as if parents older than 35 years. Explore the karyotype of the fruit egg and the parents themselves. In severe chromosomal pathologies, ECO is recommended using donor material.
  • Ultrasound, hysteroscopy (inspection using optical instruments) and hysterosalpingography (using X-ray and contrast substance) - allow you to establish the presence of anatomical pathologies. When they are detected, surgical treatment is prescribed.
  • Study of the level of genital hormones in the blood.
  • HLA-typing, analysis of the level of antispermal antibodies, as well as the detection of antiphospholipid syndrome.

The search for thrombophilic is shown only in the presence of thrombotic diseases in the history of the patient or its closest relatives. [3] [four] [four] [6] [7]

Treatment of frozen pregnancy

Women's mainstreaming tactics in early pregnancy depends on symptoms and survey data.

With dubious results of the ultrasound and suspicion of a frasonal pregnancy need to hold expectant tactics : Dynamic observation of the patient's condition with re-ultrasound. [one] [four] [five] [6] [7]

In the case of bleeding from sex tract, treatment is carried out under a gynecological hospital. The patient is necessarily reported on the high frequency of the chromosomal pathology of the fetus when measuring pregnancy, it clarifies the need for expectant tactics and undesirable to conduct drug treatment with dubious data ultrasound. [one] [four] [five] [6] [7]

If the frozen pregnancy was confirmed, then shown Medical completion of pregnancy - Use of medicines to expulse the contents of the uterine cavity. This method is an alternative to surgical treatment of frozen pregnancy. [four] [five] [6] [7] [10] At the moment, about 20% of women choose precisely drug treatment, as they want to avoid the use of anesthesia. [four] [nine] [10]

Surgery Measuring pregnancy is a reliable method that allows you to remove the contents of the uterus. The operation is shown in concomitant severe anemia, long bleeding, etc. Most patients resort to surgical interference, as it quickly completes the undeveloped pregnancy.

The least traumatic operation for purification of the uterine cavity is a vacuum aspiration. It can be carried out in outpatient conditions under local anesthesia. It is more traumatic to purify the uterus with the help of a curette (surgical spoon), also requiring anesthesia. [one] [2]

Purification of the uterus cavity

Since the former pregnancy in most patients are combined with chronic endometritis, the following is necessary after the operation:

  • Endometritis treatment;
  • restoration of the characteristics of the endometrial;
  • Preparation for the next pregnancy. [one] [2] [3] [five]

Treatment of chronic endometritis and rehabilitation of endometrial includes anti-inflammatory therapy, correction of immune disorders and microbiocenosis normalization.

The purpose of antibiotics to patients with frozen pregnancy is shown only with a proven infectious process. [four] [five] [6] [7]

Hormonotherapy plays a special role in the rehabilitation of endometrial. It allows you to restore the structure and secretory function of the uterine mucosa. For this purpose, oral contraceptives are used - combined estrogen-gestagents or progesterone preparations for 3-6 months.

When preparing for the next pregnancy, shown:

  • Treatment of diabetes, arterial hypertension, hypothyroidism, antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic red lupus, kidney disease and urinary tract (when identifying);
  • correction of vaginal microbiocenosis (if necessary);
  • elimination of constipation and disknesia of the intestines;
  • getting rid of alcohol, nicotine and narcotic dependence (if any);
  • Preventive reception 400 μg of folic acid per day for 2-4 months before the planned pregnancy, as well as the use of vitamins of B6 and B12 groups, vitamins E and D, iron, calcium and iodine. [one] [2] [3] [five]

Forecast. Prevention

Forecast when the next pregnancy is usually favorable. After the first frozen pregnancy, the risk of the loss of the next fetus increases to 18-20%.

In the event of two cases of undeveloped pregnancy in a row, an examination is recommended for establishing the causes of non-leaving from a married couple. [one] [2] [3] [five]

Plan the following pregnancy after fetal fetal follows, not earlier than six months later, it is necessary to undergo a preliminary examination.

Specific methods of prevention, unfortunately, no. However, in order to reduce the risk of frozen pregnancy, you need to deal with the treatment of already existing diseases.

Repeated frozen pregnancy

Repeatable pregnancy can manifest itself, but only in some cases. Thus, according to foreign studies, such a phenomenon takes place and not only for the first time, but also in the second and in the third.

Abortion carries a big threat. So, if there was a spontaneous abortion, then the risk of its appearance is 8% for the second time. When it comes to the third frozen pregnancy or even the fourth, this figure increases significantly and varies in 40-60%. The fact is that such a phenomenon that arose in the early stages is not amenable to any treatment. In this case, it is referred to due to the chromosomal anomaly.

If the cause of this was genetic pathology from parents. For example, it may be a violation of the blood coagulation system, it is possible to have some kind of prevention. Tactics of treatment is selected in a purely individual order. Because without a consultation of medical genetics, it is not possible to solve the problem possible. A frozen pregnancy can be excluded if we start planning the conception is still long before the process itself.

Measuring second pregnancy

Family second pregnancy is quite rare. Therefore, the future mothers on this occasion should not worry. But, before you completely calm down, it is necessary to deal with the cause of the first frozen pregnancy. If all this took place at the genetic level, then you should not plan the second conception without the participation of the doctor.

In general, the second frozen pregnancy rarely arises, its percentage is only 8%. There are no special occasions for experiences, but at the same time you need to follow yourself and regularly consult your doctor.

Any subsequent frozen pregnancy belongs to the anomaly. For the first time, this may occur for a number of reasons, the main of which are infectious diseases and genetic predisposition. In the first case, it is necessary to carefully follow your own health, in the second one is under constant supervision.

The risk of its development is significantly increased with each subsequent time.

Third frozen pregnancy

The third fabulous pregnancy is not a particularly common phenomenon, but despite this, the risk of its development arises several times.

The first frozen pregnancy occurs against the background of infectious diseases, genetic predisposition and other factors. The second and subsequent on the background of previously postponed pathology. That is why during pregnancy planning it is necessary to undergo a survey.

Naturally, it will not save this from infectious diseases. But it is worth noting that a frozen pregnancy occurs against the background of diabetes and problems with thyroid gland. If a woman with such problems begin competently plan a pregnancy, along with an experienced doctor, then nothing terrible will happen.

The third fabulous pregnancy occurs in 40% of cases. The percentage ratio is quite large. Because it is about pretty "heavy" deviations in the body of a woman. If the future mother has already encountered such sad experience, then independently planning subsequent pregnancy is not recommended.

Measuring pregnancy after 40 years

Family pregnancy after 40 years is quite common. Why is it going on and what is it connected with? The fact is that at such age the body is no longer able to endure a child.

This does not mean that it is necessary to immediately exclude such a thought. Pregnancy at this age is a rather complicated process. Someone fails to become a happy mother, someone easily achieves it. Pregnancy at this age is practically no different from the childbearing period. Just need more under the supervision of the attending physician.

During this period, a frozen pregnancy is often found. It is due to the fact that the woman's body is difficult to cope with this process. You should not panic, everything is not really so bad.

What to do a woman to avoid this phenomenon? Everything is simple, you need to consult with your doctor and on his recommendations to do. It is important to appear more often on inspections and is constantly under supervision.

Error frozen pregnancy

Unfortunately, such a phenomenon is often found. But often by mistakes of doctors. In this case, it is not worth all responsibility.

So, during the inspection, some changes may be noticed. So the doctor may not hear the heartbeat or according to preliminary measurements to diagnose the fact that the fruit is not developing.

What to do in this case? Do not immediately fall into panic, doctors, too, people. Sometimes an erroneous frozen pregnancy occurs. In this case, it is recommended to visit another clinic, in order to have spent the same inspection there. It is possible that the error just happened.

Naturally, such a confluence of the circumstances is pretty spoil nerves. But let it be better than a mistake than truth. You can spend a couple of inspections in different clinics at once. If everything confirms, we are talking about this pathology. When in another clinic refuted the diagnosis, the experiences can safely be thrown away.

Terms of frozen pregnancy

In fact, such pathology may appear at any time. It all depends solely on the characteristics of the body of the woman and from its "diseases".

But despite this, there are the most common "dates" of its appearance. So, most often, the fading occurs at a time when the fruit is most vulnerable to negative factors. So, in the first trimester it is 3-4 and 8-11 weeks. During this period, the fruit is just beginning its development. The mother's body is not able to give it the necessary protection and protect against many infections.

Also, a frozen pregnancy is capable of managing himself and 16-18 weeks. But in this case the risk is not so great. The most dangerous is considered directly 8 weeks. Because during this period there is a laying of the most important bodies of the kid.

Therefore, on these weeks you need to follow your own health carefully.

Trusted-Source.[26], [27], [28]

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