Why are the BCG vaccination
WHO recommends mass vaccination of newborns against tuberculosis in all countries where this disease is distributed. Russia is clearly refer to such countries, therefore, by 3-5 days after birth, even in the maternity hospital, all the newborn are free to vaccine BCG.
What does the BCG-M vaccine protect?
It is important that the BCG-M vaccine does not protect against infection with tuberculosis. Its task is somewhat different. If not a graft child under 2 years will be infected with tuberculosis, it has an extremely high likelihood of the development of tuberculosis meningitis and generalized forms of tuberculosis, which very quickly lead to death.
BCG-M reliably protects the child from these forms. The effectiveness of BCG-M in newborns is an average of 82%: the vaccination is five times reduced by the risk of generalized tuberculosis and meningitis. It is not known how BCH-M protects children from the pulmonary form tuberculosis: research in different countries show contradictory data. British studies show that in school children, the efficiency of protection against pulmonary form tuberculosis can be 64%.
We have an ordinary family, among our acquaintances there are no patients with tuberculosis. How big is the likelihood that a little child is infected?
She is quite great. Tuberculosis in Russia is so common so that by forty years 70-90% of the inhabitants of our country are infected with them. This does not mean that they are sick: after infection, the immunity of most people copes with the bacterium. The probability of getting raised is an average of 8% in the first two years after infection, then gradually decreases, and acquired cellular immunity is formed. Among adults, people weakened, living in bad conditions, with lack of light and fresh air, poorly feed (migrants, prisoners) or those who are constantly contacting patients (for example, family members). However, a small child, with him not yet formed immunity, there may be quite the only random contact with the patient in transport or shop.
Each patient with an active form of tuberculosis highlights a day with a wet from 15 million to 7 billion koch bacilli, which extends within a radius of 1-6 meters. The koche wand is very stable: it is withstanding freezing to minus 269 ° C, retains vitality in dried sputum on clothing up to 3-4 months, in dairy products - up to the year, on books - up to six months.
On average, one patient with an active form of tuberculosis is able to infect 10-15 people per year. From this data it is clear that the BCG-M vaccination is really relevant in Russia today.
BCG-M - What is this vaccine?
BCG-M is a living vaccine, that is, it is cooked from the strain of a weakened tuberculosis stick. This is one of the oldest vaccines, but there is no analogues all over the world yet.
What complications are possible when vaccinating BCG-M?
- Cold abscess - as a rule, in violation of the technique of administration, more often in children who are vaccinated in the clinic.
- Lymphadenitis (frequency of 0.35 cases per 1 million vaccinations).
- The generalized BCG infection (BCG) is usually in children with congenital immunodeficials.
Why does the BCG-M need to be painted in the maternity hospital?
- First, to protect the child from the first days of life.
- Secondly, the effectiveness of the BCH-M over time decides (it must be introduced up to a year, but some pediatricians believe that after 6 months it no longer makes sense).
- Thirdly, than the younger child, the smaller the probability of complications - inflammation of lymph nodes or cold abscess.
Reduces the likelihood of complications and skillful introduction of the vaccine. BCG-M vaccine is introduced strictly intradermode! Nurses in the maternity hospital are carried out by BCG vaccination daily, constantly and massively: they have, what is called, "the hand is naked", and in the clinics, this vaccination is made infrequently and therefore more often "misses".
What if I want to leave the hospital for 2-3 days?
BCG-M vaccination can be done before than 3-5 days of the baby. If you want to leave the hospital for 2-3 days, you can ask the medical staff to transfer vaccination for 2 days.
Are there any contraindications to the Vaccination of the BCG-M?
- The presence of a newborn, intrauterine hypotrophy III-IV degree. With a mass of less than 2000 grams of the newborn, do not have to vaccinate until it gains the necessary weight.
- Acute diseases and exacerbations of chronic diseases. In this case, vaccination is postponed before recovery or stabilize the state.
- If the mother is HIV-infected, the breeding vaccination is postponed until 18 months (up to the final clarification of the status of the child).
- Primary immunodeficiency, malignant neoplasms in the child.
Why do you need to make a manta sample, diaskintest and fluorography?
Sooner or later, 70-90% of Russians face tuberculosis bacterium. One of the ten as a result of this meeting is ill. We remember that the BCG-M does not protect against tuberculosis; That is why each of us should conduct inspections to themselves and their children. Samples, such as Mantu, Diskintest, T-Spot, detect whether the child has encountered a tuberculosis bacterium or not. When infected, the so-called "turning of tuberculin sample" occurs, and then a child or teenager forms its own cellular immunity. The probability that it will get sick, below, if the BCH-M vaccination was made (we talked about the effectiveness against tuberculosis in schoolchildren, which, although not very high, is still present).
Why are hepatitis B vaccination?
Hepatitis B - deadly danger for a small child. If an adult, infected, can dozens of years to live in remission and not even know about the disease, then in children this virus very quickly causes cirrhosis of the liver and cancer.
The hepatitis B virus lives in the Environment 7 days. Thus, it can live not only on medical instruments, but also on objects of hygiene, clothing, etc. To transmit the virus, there is enough skin microcracks or mucous membranes. Thus, there is a risk with any medical manipulations, not to mention blood transfusion in the event of a burn or accident.
In addition, 30% of the carriers of the virus do not know about their illness. Mother can transfer hepatitis B to the child, even if she was checked during pregnancy, and especially - if not checked. Therefore, in the first 24 hours after birth, it is very important to introduce a vaccine against hepatitis V.
What is the further vaccination schedule against hepatitis B?
It is usually carried out according to the circuit 0-1 months to 6 months, but other vaccination schemes are possible depending on the drug.
How long does the vaccination of hepatitis B?
Earlier it was believed that the defense lasts no longer than 5-7 years, but in the future it turned out that even 25 years after the completion of vaccination, the defense is still preserved. Thus, the vaccination in infancy protects, among other things, from infection as a result of risky sexual behavior in adolescents and young people.
Is it possible to vaccinate hepatitis B if the newborn "jaundice"?
Can. There is no connection between vaccination and a jaundice newborn.
- First, the vaccine from hepatitis in no way affects the functioning of the liver. All processes associated with vaccination occur only in the immune system.
- Secondly, the jaundice of newborns is also associated not with the liver, but with what the fetal hemoglobin is replaced by adult. Destroying, hemoglobin turns into bilirubin. It is excreted by the cookie of the newborn, but the body itself does not suffer.
What complications may arise after vaccination against hepatitis B?
Hepatitis Vaccines in almost never cause a noticeable reaction. This is one of the most easily portable vaccinations and in children, and in adults.
Vaccinations in the maternity hospital are very important. They need to be done.
BCG-M - imperfect, but indispensable vaccine, which really saves life in a serious situation with tuberculosis in Russia. Vaccine against hepatitis B is safe and effective protection against potentially deadly and also widespread infection.
It is worth starting to be taken from the first days, and how to adhere to the calendar vaccinations in the future - we will tell you in the next article.
The article for you prepared a pediatrician-neonatologist Clinic Euromed Kids - Isaeva-Petrova Irina Borisovna
Already in the hospital, the infants usually make 2 vaccinations:
- BCG vaccination (from tuberculosis)
After birth, the child's immunity is weakened. In some causative agents of infections, the infants may have a minor immunity due to the fact that it was formed by the mother, and then he passed the child. But such innate immunity is not on all pathogens, so some vaccinations make newborns right in the maternity hospital.
Graft from hepatitis in
The very first vaccination - vaccination from hepatitis B - they do in the first 12 hours after the birth of the baby.
This disease is very dangerous and causes disruption of nervous and digestive systems.
The vaccination from hepatitis is drawn to the child (front outdoor of the thigh)
What are vaccinated from hepatitis B?
Hepatitis B vaccines can be domestic or foreign. At the moment, six vaccines are allowed in Russia:
- yeast recombinant vaccine (Russia);
- Polyvaccine Buquo-Kok (Russia). Protects not only from hepatitis B, but also works against diphtheria, cough and tetanus;
- Endzherix-B (Belgium) preparation;
- Means Eberbivak NV (Russia-Cuba);
- Vaccine N-B-VAX II (USA);
- SCI-B-VAC (Israel).
Euvax vaccine is currently withdrawn from use in the Russian Federation, as it served as death in children in Vietnam.All of them are equally safe and based on the use of one of the virus shell proteins, called the surface antigen, or HBsag.
Contraindications for vaccination against hepatitis in the maternity hospital:
- The presence or weight of the child at birth is below 2 kg.
- Identifying the child of hepatitis B, who passed from the mother
- Low scale on the scale of apgar
- acute phase of infectious disease
- Diseases of intrauterine character
- Diseases of autoimmune (including primary immunodeficiency).
After vaccination, the infectious effects may occur:
- Redness of the area where vaccinated
- Increased plasticity at the expense of pain in the joints and muscles
- Allergy (including anaphylactic shock)
Is it possible to abandon the vaccination from hepatitis in the hospital?
You can give up vaccination, but the failure is worth it in advance, even before delivery. Potaz is issued in 2 copies.
The standard vaccination against hepatitis is carried out in the first day after birth, in a month and after 6 months.
It is worth considering that vaccinations have no long-term effect. If at least one vaccination out of three is missing, then the vaccination re-starts with the very first vaccination.
BCG vaccination from tuberculosis
The second vaccination, which is done in the maternity hospital is the BCG vaccination. It is done on 3-7 days after birth.
The vaccination is done in the first days of the life of the infant, because the maternal immunity from tuberculosis is not transferred to the child.
The BCG vaccination is in the hand of the baby (on the border between the shoulder and the fold of the left hand).
What are vaccinated from tuberculosis in the maternity hospital?
BCG - the only aircraft vaccine available for 2018. This vaccine is relatively safe, inexpensive and requires only one injection.
In addition to tuberculosis, the BCG vaccine has proven effectiveness in the fight against leprosy and, according to incomplete data, protects against ulcers and other non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis. In addition, it is used in the treatment of urinary bubble cancer.
Contraindications for vaccination against hepatitis in the maternity hospital:
- The presence of immunodeficiency in the newborn
- If members of the newborn family had complications during vaccination
- Enzymatic insufficiency
- Healthy diseases
- acute phase of infectious disease
After vaccination, the kid may have side effects:
- Inflammation of the place of vaccination
- Total lethargy and drowsiness
The question of setting or not to put prophylactic vaccinations to children in recent years is becoming increasingly relevant. Previously, vaccinations in the maternity hospital did all healthy children, now it is not necessarily the opinion of parents.
Therefore, future parents began to think about the significance and risks of vaccination. The number of people, trap protesters, and, on the contrary, speaking for vaccination, is constantly growing. All future mothers should know what vaccinations make newborns in the maternity hospital. What are these vaccinations? What diseases do they protect? Do you need to put them at all? How to give up vaccination? Let's deal with.
What is preventive vaccinations
Preventive vaccination is a method for developing immunity against certain, severe treatment, diseases. The vaccine consists of weakened microbes-pathogens of the appropriate disease, against which the body produces antibodies.
Vaccination against hepatitis B.
Hepatitis B is a severe viral disease, contamination by which it occurs through blood, or saliva, and leads to the damage to the liver. If the new Mom has a positive hepatitis status, then the child should be vaccinated during the first 12 hours of life.
Contraindications for vaccination are presence in which the weight of the child is less than 2 kilograms and a low score on the apgar scale. Cut the vaccine intramuscularly into the front / side surface of the hip. Revaccination is required at the age of 1 and 6 months.
Grafting against tuberculosis
More famous for us like BCG. Also put in the maternity hospital from 3 to 7 days of the life of the baby. The danger of tuberculosis is that it is transmitted by air-droplet without direct contact with a sick person. According to the World Health Organization, about 2 million people die from tuberculosis every year. The infection affects the lungs, bones leads to disability. An important moment is that the immunity against the tuberculosis from mother is not transferred to the child, so the body of the baby must develop it. The injection is made intradermode into the left shoulder. Many mothers are concerned about the wound, which is formed after the BCG vaccination. But you should not panic. The main thing is to achieve the kid one of the year the place of the injection completely dug. Tabs with weight up to 2 kilograms also do not put this vaccine. Other contraindications are: the presence in the family of people with immunodeficiency, the defeat of the central nervous system, infectious processes in the body. Immunity from tuberculosis is maintained in the body of a child of 6-7 years, therefore, with a negative reaction, the manta conduct revaccination in 7 and 14 years.
Possible states after vaccination
In addition to the fact that the vaccination is the cause of stress for the child, other conditions may be observed:
- The child is capricious, crying;
- The child rises the temperature;
- redness and sealing of the skin area at the injection site appears;
- There are allergic reactions, rash;
- The child eats worse and sleeps continuously.
All these manifestations are considered a normal body reaction. Only with a strong increase in temperature, the child should give an antipyretic drug. The temperature rise is a signal that the baby's immune system has activated and actively produces antibodies against the virus, as well as the increased body temperature is an antimicrobial factor, since many microbes are not able to survive at high temperatures.
Is it possible to abandon the child's vaccination
Of course yes. Responsibility for the health of the child lies completely on the shoulders of the parents. If you have taken a weighted decision to refuse, you need to write a corresponding application in two copies. The first copy must be investigated in the exchange card, the second - to give the doctors in the postpartum compartment. It is also necessary to verbally notify the staff of the medical institution about the refusal to conduct vaccination.
If parents decided to refuse vaccination, then the future mother should be morally prepared for the possibility of psychological pressure and agitation by medical personnel in favor of preventive vaccinations. Such pressure is due not so much by good intentions, how many "vaccination plan" acting in all state medical institutions.
Most modern doctors still agree that putting vaccinations against hepatitis B and tuberculosis with newborns needed. The risks of complications after vaccination are significantly lower than possible consequences after infection with these diseases.
If the parents are not jar opponents of vaccinations, but they do not want to expose the faster organism of the newborn baby danger, one can delay vaccination. At the same time, the precinct pediatrician must compile an individual vaccination schedule with compliance with the wishes of the parents.
Certificate of prophylactic vaccinations
A certificate of preventive vaccinations is a document containing information about the vaccinations made indicating the duty of vaccination and the patient's reaction to them. Since the first vaccinations of the newborn make in the maternity hospital, then there must be given this document.
But in practice, this rule is often not respected. In this case, it should be reminded to the staff of the hospital about their responsibilities, or wait and ask for a certificate from a precipitated pediatrician in the clinic.
The certificate will need when the child is received in kindergarten, school, as well as during travel abroad.
So what vaccinations do in the hospital newborns 2016-2017? Vaccination from hepatitis B and vaccination from tuberculosis.
Despite the fact that pediatricians and neonatologists campaign parents necessarily vaccinate children, the decision still remains behind the mother and dad. When this important child is taking this decision, not only the pros and cons of preventive vaccinations should be taken into account, but also the fact that the child is a member of society. And this means that we are responsible not only for their children, but also for people who are surrounding. Of course, if you live in a cave, in a taiga, in the desert, in a volcanic crater, on a desert island, then most likely the question of vaccinations you do not have. But if the place of your stay involves contact with people, then it is still worth thinking about vaccination.
What do you have to face a little man who appeared to light? Many pleasant moments: the first meeting with loved ones, independent life, the knowledge of the surrounding world. But there are a disturbing parties in this diversity. Each baby after birth has a chance to infect for the first time dangerous and sometimes incurable diseases. To reduce the risk of infection with heavy pathologies of pediatricians, it is recommended to make some vaccinations with newborns in the maternity hospital.
A sharp changes in the work of the internal organs lead to a decrease in immunity, and in order to be slightly stimulated in the first hours after birth, it is necessary to hurt from hepatitis B and tuberculosis. How safe are such manipulations for kids? Do I need to make vaccinations newborns in the hospital?
What vaccinations in the maternity hospital do newborns
There is an erroneous opinion that Mine Immunity will fully protect the child after the appearance of the light. Many people think that during the period of breastfeeding, it is impossible to get infected from what a mother was vaccinated from. This is not true. Some suffered infectious diseases really leave a resistant immunity for life, but only to someone who has suffered with this ailment.
Important vaccines were introduced into the vaccine calendar, each in its laid time. For example, vaccine from diphtheria, tetanus and cough is made for the first time in 3 months - before this period, the child is still protected from such infections by mamic cells-assistants.
What vaccinations make newborns in the maternity hospital? In the first hours of life, doctors try to protect the kid from viral hepatitis B. Such an infectious disease in a weakened organism can cause, above all, a violation of the operation of digestive and nervous systems.
The second no less important vaccination is the prevention of an infectious disease, which does not give rest above all the respiratory system - it is almost incurable tuberculosis. The increase in the incidence of this disease is observed in recent decades, and treatment, in many cases, is inefficient due to the development of the resistance of mycobacterium tuberculosis to antibiotics. The BCG vaccination is made in the maternity hospital for 3-5 days after birth, because when meeting with an infected person, the child is not completely protected.
Hepatitis B Prevention in Newborn
Most often the very first injection of the child is an advent of infectious viral hepatitis B. Why exactly such a disease was not disregarding doctors and decided to vaccinate just what had appeared on the light of kids? Is it possible to abandon this vaccination in the hospital? There are many important reasons for the primary prevention of hepatitis.
- The liver is one of the most important human bodies. It begins to fully function in the first minutes of life and serves as a cleaning system. There is a destruction of already unnecessary "mother's" blood cells - erythrocytes with the formation of bilirubin.
- The first nutrition and the adoption of drugs gives the load on this body.
- The production of hormones, the assimilation of any products also occurs in the liver.
- Even in the maternity hospital, you can meet with a person - hepatitis B carrier (with the latent form of the course of the disease in close relatives who wish to visit the mother and the baby, which no time suffered hepatitis B and are not observed).
- The long incubation period of the hepatitis B virus (up to 12 weeks) helps to hide the occurrence of the disease at the initial stage.
- The rapid spread of the hepatitis B virus and its stability in the external environment is predisposing factors to the infection of others.
Therefore, the child is in the risk group for this disease. The vaccination from hepatitis B newborns is not easy - this is the only way to protect the baby from the disease and its consequences. And since his body in the first hours of life more susceptible to any infection - then vaccination is carried out immediately after birth. We instill all children if there are no contraindications. This is one of the few vaccines that is tolerated well and proceeds without pronounced reactions.
Where do the vaccination from hepatitis newborn? Breast children vaccinate intramuscularly into the overall part of the thigh.
You can refuse from vaccinations, but you need to prevent doctors about it in advance before childbirth. So you can avoid unforeseen situations in the case when the mother suffered heavy childbirth, and after the awakening learned that the child was set without her consent. Failure to execute is necessary in writing in two copies.
Do I need to make a vaccination from hepatitis B newborn
What kind and against vaccinations from hepatitis B newborns? Why is it worth making your baby?
- The incidence of hepatitis around the world is growing with each day. According to WHO, people infected with hepatitis B virus, about 2 billion. And only 350 million of them comes to the stage of pronounced clinical manifestations.
- Only hepatitis infected b can be infected with another heavy disease - hepatitis D.
- Agreeing at the vaccination, Mom protects the child from a serious infection, which gives complication not only on the digestion system.
- Many frighten some false reactions to the vaccination from hepatitis in newborns. But the yellow skin color is 3-5 days after birth - this is not a complication. This is the usual physiological state of a newborn, which occurs when the milled hemoglobin decay. It happens in each, but in varying degrees, so there is no contraindication, as many think.
- Especially it is especially necessary to instill a child to those parents who have a person with hepatitis in the family.
What children should not be vaccinated
- Premature children. In this case, the vaccination is postponed for 2 months.
- Todddles with high body temperature - until the state normalization.
It is difficult for the baby to track the reaction to the components of the vaccination, since after birth the body reacts to everything. The second vaccination from hepatitis newborns is done in a month. In the event of a reaction to it, the following vaccination is contraindicated.
Prevention of tuberculosis in newborns
The list of first vaccinations of newborns in the maternity hospital is also an important vaccine - BCG. This incomprehensible abbreviation - bacillus Calmette-Guérin (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) is deciphered, named French scientists. The drug protects against tuberculosis. The classic manifestation of the disease is the tuberculosis of lungs. But mycobacteria is affixed and other equally important systems:
- genitals and kidneys;
- leather and bones, joints;
- central nervous system;
- The lymph nodes;
Vaccination from tuberculosis newborns is held for 3-7 days from the moment of birth. Why in the first week of the life of a newborn baby to load his immunity?
- The rapid spread of tuberculosis infection throughout the body leads to the development of heavy complications.
- Over the past decades, due to the vaccinations, the incidence decreased.
- About 25,000 people die of infection.
- In developing countries, the epidemiological situation on tuberculosis is still tense.
Where do vaccinations newborns from tuberculosis? This is the boundary of the upper and middle third of the left shoulder.
BCG is introduced strictly intrader. Since the vaccine consists of living attenuated airulente (unsuccessful) mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is stored in a separate room under the lock, and the ampule unused per day is destroyed. Therefore, before vaccination your baby, make sure that the new ampoule is taken.
The reaction of the organism of the newborn to vaccine from tuberculosis
On vaccination from tuberculosis infection, the body of a newborn baby can respond differently. And this is one of the most unpleasant moments in vaccination.
When the vaccinations are made from tuberculosis, the newborn may be the reaction of the following nature.
- Local reaction in the form of a scar. Changes in the field of injection occur gradually: inflammation of the fabric, necrosis or donation, possibly the formation of a yazelchka, which after a few weeks goes into the scar.
- There is no pronounced overall reaction. The kid can be sluggish for several days.
- Inflammation of the axillary and cervical lymph nodes.
- Generalized infection, osteite bones.
- Keloid scar.
Does vaccinations in the maternity hospital? Yes, no one knows what the baby expects the borders of this medical institution. In favor of the fact that the vaccinations are necessary, there is a decrease in the incidence in recent years after the start of universal vaccination. Each child has a risk of developing some complications for vaccination. But any of them are incommensurable with the risk to transfer the inflammatory process in the liver, as in the case of hepatitis B, or once infected with tuberculosis and not always effective multiple therapy courses. To determine everything and against the vaccinations of newborns in the maternity hospital - a few weeks before the birth, it is worth consulted with a knowledgeable specialist and to solve the fate of his baby.